30 November 2007

FW: Movie Mania


From: ada kemal [mailto:ada_mkemal@yahoo.com]
Sent: 10 September 2007 12:57
To: Cipunk; Hadmoko; Hayat; Aida Hayati; Icha; Indah; Kemal; Kiki Tiara; Nova
Subject: Movie Mania


Translated Movies on Boso Jowo

Judul Asli -- Boso Jowo

Enemy at the Gates -- Musuhe Wis Tekan Gapuro
Die Another Day -- Modare Ojo Saiki
Die Hard -- Matine Angel
Die Hard II -- Matine Angel Tenan
Die Hard III With A Vengeance -- Kowe Kok Ra Mati-Mati To?
Die Hard IV (Die) - Jan Tenanan, Arep Mati Kok Angel Tenan
Bad Boys -- Bocah-Bocah Elek
Catwoman - Kucing Wedok
Man of Fire -- Wong Lanang Kesumuken
No Way Back -- Ora Iso Mulih (kesasar to?)
Just Married - Mantenan
Red Eye -- Matane Abang (klilipan opo?)
Casino Royale - Togel Akeh Duite
The Hoax -- Ngapusi
Harry Potter - Harry Dodol Pot
Lost in Space -- Ilang Neng Awang-awang
X-Men -- Wong Lanang Saru
X-Men 2 -- Wong Lanang Saru Tenan
Cheaper by the Dozen -- Tuku Selusin Luwih Murah
Paycheck -- Kasbon
Independence Day -- Pitulasan
There is Something About Marry -- Meri Ono Apa-Apane
Silence of the Lamb -- Wedhuse Mutung
All The Pretty Horses -- Jarane Ayu-Ayu
Planet of the Apes -- Planete Wong Apes
Gone in Sixty Second -- Minggat Sakcepete
Original Sin -- Dosa Tenanan
The Abyss -- Entek-Entekan
Deja Vu -- Pangling
Seabiscuit -- Klethikan Neng Laut
Terminator -- Terminal Montor
How To Lose A Guy in 10 Days -- Piye Carane Megat Lanangan Mung 10
Lord Of The Ring -- Pedagang Akik
Deep Impact -- Ngantem Njero
Million Dollar Baby -- Babi Regone Sayuto
Blackhawk Down -- Manuk Ireng Kenek Bedhil
Saving Private Ryan -- Ngelesi Privat Mas Ryan (pancene goblog tenan
Gone With The Wind -- Wes Ewes Ewes, Bablas Angine
Because I Said So -- Dikandani Kok Ngeyel Temen Sih
Superman -- Gatot Koco



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Kamus Istilah Komputer

A Glossary of Computer Oriented Abbreviations and Acronyms

Version 05C

Copyright © 1989-2005...Irving & Richard Kind...All Rights

BABEL is now 16 years old... Spread the word, so everyone

may enjoy the glossary and benefit.


NEW..Check out the SENIOR FOLDER...It ONLY contains

abbreviations that have been
used recently for computer related advertisements in

newspapers and magazines. This
will greatly aid seniors making purchases relating to

Computers, Televisions,
Digital Cameras, Cell Phones, Disk Drives and Disks,

Printers and more.




(1) Using the vertical scroll bar.
(2) `Using the PgDn key.
(3) Using your browser's FIND command.
(4) Clicking on one of the (TOP) or (UP/DN to ...) or

buttons found at the top of each letter-group

(5) START by clicking on any letter-group button



Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C NOTES


First compiled when I became frustrated while reading

articles, help wanted ads and equipment for sale

pertaining to computers....where the following Abbreviations

Acronyms were used and their meanings were either not known

to me
or were not immediately available. I have actually seen (or

been told about) these combinations of letters used at one

time or
another in magazines, newspapers, handbooks, etc. They

apply to
personal computers, multimedia, communications, programming,
networking, etc......you name it. This glossary can never

considered complete so look over the entries and let me have

feedback. If you find errors or if you can suggest

additions, they
will be most welcome (See NOTE 1). If you can help, you

have my
thanks in advance.

Keep BABEL on your hard drive or floppy disk or print

it and
keep it on your desk (See NOTE 2). Either way, you will

have an
outstanding reference, immediately available. BABEL is

three times a year, in January, May and September so as to

keep you
up-to-date. See APPENDIX A for methods that may be used to
download BABEL in either TEXT, HTML or PALM Format.

Letter groups followed with " * " were used before

1965. At
some of these, historical information is noted. For brief
interpretations of "smiley faces" and other informal

used in electronic mail messages, see APPENDIX B. For a

list of Country Domain Names, see APPENDIX C.

BABEL is not in the public domain. It is free for

personal use.
When you download it, you agree to the following: You will

retain BABEL in its entirety and not make ANY modifications,

include: This opening page, copyright information, version

and format. You will not incorporate it into any other

publish it, sell it, mirror it, or place it on any intranet.

questions concerning these restrictions should ONLY be made

writing. Send p-mail to address shown below.

And please remember to ECAL.

Irving Kind Additions,

c/o K & D or Comments..Send

One Church Lane to:

Baltimore, MD 21208 USA with word 'BABEL'

in subject

Jan 2005 version = 05A Jan 2006 version = 06A
May 2005 version = 05B May 2006 version = 06B
Sep 2005 version = 05C Sep 2006 version = 06C
| TOP | DN to B | BOTTOM |

AA Auto Answer
AAA Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
AAB All-to-All Broadcast
AAC Advanced Audio Coding
AAL Asynchronous Transfer Mode Adaption Layer
AAM Automatic Acoustic Management
AAP Applications Access Point [DEC]
AARP AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol
AAS All-to-All Scatter
AASP ASCII Asynchronous Support Package
AAT Average Access Time
AATP Authorized Academic Training Program [Microsoft]
.ABA Address Book Archive (file name extension) [Palm]
ABAP Advanced Business Application Programming [SAP]
ABC * Atanasoff-Berry Computer (First digital
calculating machine that used vacuum tubes)
ABEND Abnormal End
ABI Application Binary Interface
ABIST Automatic Built-In Self-Test [IBM]
ABLE Adaptive Battery Life Extender +
Agent Building and Learning Environment [IBM]
ABM Asynchronous Balanced Mode
ABR Available Bit Rate
ABRD Automatic Baud Rate Detection
ABRS Automated Book Request System [British Library]
ABS Address Book Synchronization [IBM] + Absolute
ABT Abort
ABTS ASCII Block Terminal Services
AC Autocheck + Automatic Computer + Alternating

ACAP Application Configuration Access Protocol
ACC Accumulator
ACCMAIL Accessing the Internet Via Email
ACD Automatic Call Distribution
ACDI Asynchronous Communications Device Interface
ACE Access Control Encryption/Entry +
Adobe Certified Expert +
Advanced Computing Environment [SCO] +
Adverse Channel Enhancements [Microcom] +
* Automatic Computing Engine
ACF Access Control Field +
Advanced Communications Function
ACH Automated Clearing House
ACIAS Automated Calibration Interval Analysis System
ACIS American Committee for Interoperable Systems
ACK Acknowledgment
ACL Access Control List + Asynchronous Connection-Less

ACM Association for Computing Machinery
Audio Compression Manager [Microsoft]
ACMS Application Control Management System
ACP Ancillary Control Program + Auxiliary Control

ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
ACR Allowed Cell Rate
ACROSS Automated Cargo Release and Operations
Service System
ACS Access + Access Control Set + Access Control

System +
* Advanced Computer System [IBM] +
Anti Curl System + Asynchronous Communication

ACSS Audio Cascading Style Sheets
ACTLU Active Logical Unit
ACTPU Active Physical Unit
ACTS Automated Computer Time Service
ACTT Advanced Communication and Timekeeping Technology

ACU Automatic Calling Unit
ACVC Ada Compiler Validation Capacity
A/D Analog to Digital
ADA Automatic Data Acquisitions +
(Programming Language named after Augusta Ada

ADB Apple Desktop Bus
ADC Adaptive Data Compression (protocol) [Hayes] +
Add with Carry + Analog to Digital Converter
ADCCP Advanced Data Communication Control

ADD Automatic Document Detection [WordPerfect]
ADF Automatic Document Feeder +
Automatically Defined Function
.ADF Adapter Description File (file name extension)
ADI AutoCad/AutoDesk Device Interface (driver)
ADIOS Automated Download and Installation of
Operating Systems [Queensland U.]
ADL Address Data Latch
ADLAT Adaptive Lattice Filter
ADLC Adaptive Lossless Data Compression [IBM] +
Asynchronous Data Link Control
ADMACS Apple Document Management And Conrol System
ADMD Administrative Management Domain [X.400]
.ADN Add In Utility (file name extension)
[Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
ADO ActiveX Data Objects
ADP AOLserver Dynamic Pages + Automatic Data

ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
ADR Address
ADS Application Development Solutions [AT&T] +
Application Development System +
Automatic Distribution System
ADSC Address Status Changed +
Adobe Document Structuring Conventions
ADSI Active Directory Service Interface [Microsoft] +
Analog Display Services Interface
ADSP AppleTalk Datastream Protocol
ADSR Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release
ADT Abstract Data Type + Application Data Types
ADU Automatic Dialing Unit
AE Above or Equal
AEB Analog Expansion Bus [Dialogic]
AEC Architecture, Engineering, Construction
AEM Asynchronous Event Mechanism
.AERO Aviation Industry (Domain Name) [Internet]
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
AESA ATM End System Address
AF Auxiliary carry Flag
AFA Accelerated File Access
AFC Antiferro-Magnetically Coupled (media) [IBM] +
Automatic Font Change + Automatic Frequency

AFD Automatic File Distribution
AFDW Active Framework for Data Warehousing [Microsoft]
AFI Authority and Format Identifier
AFII Association for Font Information Interchange
AFIRM Automated Fingerprint Image Reporting and Match
AFIS Automated Fingerprint Identification System
.AFM Adobe Font Metrics (file name extension) [Adobe

AFP Advanced Function Presentation [IBM] +
Advanced Function Printing +
Appletalk Filing Protocol [Macintosh]
AFS Andrew File System (protocols)
AFTP Advanced/Anonymous File Transfer Protocol
AGA Advanced Graphics Adapter
AGC Automatic Gain Control
AGP Accelerated/Advanced Graphics Port
AGRAS Antiglare-Antireflective-Antistatic
AGU Address-Generation Unit
AH Authentication Header (protocol)
AHS Automated Highway Systems
AI Analog Input + Artificial Intelligence
AIA Applications Integration Architecture [DEC]
AIC AIXwindows Interface Composer [IBM]
AIFF Audio Interchange File Format
AIIM Association for Information and Image Management
AIM AOL Instant Messenger
AIN Advanced Intelligent Network [Bell Atlantic]
AIO All-In-One
AIP Application Infrastruture Provider
AIR Architecture Implementation Review
AIS Automated Identification System [NCIC] +
Automated Information Systems
AISB Association of Imaging Service Bureaus
AISP Association of Information Systems Professionals
AIT Advanced Intelligent Tape (drive) [Sony]
AIX Advanced Interactive Executive [IBM]
AJAX Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
ALAT Advanced Load Address Table
ALC Arithmetic and Logic Circuits +
Automatic Level Control
ALE Address Latch Enable +
Application Linking and Embedding
ALGOL Algorithmic Oriented Language (see IAL)
ALIBI Adaptive Location of Internetworked Bases
of Information
ALICE Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity
ALINK Active Link [HTML]
ALIWEB Archie Like Indexing in the Web [Internet]
ALN Asynchronous Learning Network
ALOS Alternate Lighting Of Surfaces
ALP Automatic Language Processing
ALR Advanced Logic Research, Inc.
ALT Alternate (mode)
ALT. Alternate lifestyle [USENET Newsgroup Category]
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit
AM Amplitude Modulation
AMA Automatic Message Accounting
AMANDDA Automated Messaging and Directory Assistance
AMASS Archival Management and Storage System
AMD Active Matrix Display + Advanced Micro Devices,

AMDD Agile Modelling Driven Development
AMI Alternate Mark Inversion + American Megatrends,

Inc. +
Application Messaging Interface
AMMA Advanced Memory Management Architecture [Everex

AMPL Algebraic/Applied Mathematical Programming Language
AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Service + Amplifiers
AMR Audio Modem Riser
ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance
ANDF Architecture-Neutral Distribution Format
ANI Automatic Number Identification
.ANI Animated Cursor (file name extension) [Microsoft]
ANN Artificial Neural Network
.ANN Annotations (file name extension) [IBM]
ANOVA Analysis Of Variance
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ANX Automotive Network Exchange [Chrysler/Ford/
General Motors]
AO Analog Output
AOCE Apple Open Collaboration Environment
AO/DI Always On/Dynamic ISDN
AODV Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector
AOE Application Operating Environment [AT&T]
AOL America Online
AOS Add Or Subtract
AP Adjunct Processor + Application Processor
A/P Accounts Payable
APA Adaptive Packet Assembly +
All Points Addressable +
Arithmetic Processing Accelerator
APAR Authorized Program Analysis Report [IBM]
APAREN Address Parity Enable [IBM]
APCUG Association of PC User Groups
APDU Application Protocol Data Units
API Application Program Interface
APIC Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (bus)

APIPA Automatic Private Interenet Protocol Addressing
APIS Advanced Passenger Information System
APL * A Programming Language (Mathematics)
APM Advanced Power Management [IBM]
APNIC Asia-Pacific Network Information Center [Internet]
APOP Authenticated Post Office Protocol
.APP Application (file name extension) [R:Base]
APPC Advanced Program-to-Program Communications [IBM]
APPI Advanced Peer-to-Peer Internetworking
APPLETS Applications
APPN Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking [IBM]
APPS Applications
APR Annual Percentage Rate
APRP Adaptive Pattern Recognition Processing
APS Active Pixel Sensor + Advanced Photo System +
Advanced Printing Service [IBM] +
Asynchronous Protocol Specification
APSE ADA Programming Support Environment
APT Address Pass Through +
Advanced Parallel Technology +
Automatically Programmed Tools
A/R Accounts Receivable
ARA AppleTalk Remote Access
ARAG Antireflective-Antiglare
ARAS Antireflective-Antistatic
ARC Acoustic Resonance Control
.ARC Archive (file name extension)
ARCA Advanced RISC Computing Architecture
ARCnet Attached Resource Computer Network
.ARJ Compressed File (file name extension) [Jung]
ARL Adjusted Ring Length
ARLL Advanced Run Length Limited
ARM Advanced RISC Machine (processor) +
Annotated Reference Manual +
Asynchronous Response Mode
ARMA Association of Records Managers and Administrators
ARP Address Resolution Protocol [Novell]
ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
ARPL Adjust Requested Privilege Level
ARS Activity Reporting System [Unisys]
ART Adaptive Resonance Theory (algorithm)
ARTA Apple Real Time Architecture
ARTIC A Real-Time Interface Coprocessor [IBM]
ARTS Asynchronous Remote Takeover Server
.ARTS Cultural Groups (Domain Name) [Internet]
ARTT Asynchronous Remote Takeover Terminal
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
ARU Audio Response Unit
AS Autonomous System [Internet]
ASAI Adjunct Switch Application Interface [AT&T]
ASAP As Soon As Possible +
Automatic Switching And Processing
AS3AP ANSI SQL Standard Scalable and Portable
ASB Advanced System Buffering [Intel]
.ASC ASCII text (file name extension)
ASCC * Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator [IBM]
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASD Application Structure Database [Microsoft] +
Automatic Skip Driver [Microsoft]
ASF Active/Advanced Streaming Format [Microsoft]
ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
ASIT Advanced Security and Identification Technology
ASL Adaptive Speed Levelling
ASLM Apple Shared Library Manager [Macintosh]
.ASM Assembler Source Language (file name extension)
ASMP Asymmetric Multprocessing
ASN Abstract Syntax Notation + Autonomous System

ASO Automated Systems Operations
ASP Active Server Page [Microsoft] +
Application/Authorized Service Provider +
Aspect Oriented Programming +
Association of Shareware Professionals
.ASP Active Server Page (file name extension)
ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface [Adaptec]
ASPS Advanced Signal Processing System
ASR Address Space Register + Automatic Send-Receive +
Automatic Speech Recognition +
Automatic System Recovery
AST AST Research, Inc. (named from first initials of
the founders: Albert Wong, Safi Qureshey, Thomas

AS/U Advanced Server for Unix
ASYNC Asynchronous
AS/400 Application System/400 [IBM]
AT Advanced Technology + Attention
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment
ATAPI Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface
ATC Advanced Transfer Cache
ATDP Attention Dial Pulse
ATDT Attention Dial Tone
ATE Automated Test Equipment
ATG Advanced Technology Group
ATH Attention Hang-Up (Modem command)
ATL Active Template Library
ATM Adobe Typeface Manager + Air Traffic Management +
Asynchronous Transfer Mode + Automated Teller

ATPS AppleTalk Printing Services [Macintosh]
ATR Automatic Terminal Recognition
ATS Administrative Terminal System +
Apple Terminal Services
AT&T American Telephone and Telegraph
ATTN Attention
ATTRIB Attribute (also ATR)
ATX Advanced Technology Extended [Intel]
ATZ Attention Restore configuration profile from
nonvolatile RAM (Modem command)
.AU Audio (file name extension)
AUDIT Automated Data Input Terminal
AUI Attachment/Autonomous Unit Interface
AUP Acceptable Use Policy [Internet]
AUTO Automatic
AUTOEXEC Automatic Execution
AUX Auxiliary + (First Serial Port)
AV Audio/Video + Audio/Visual + Authenticity

AVA Audio Visual Authoring [IBM]
AVC Audio Visual Connection [IBM]
AVD Alternating Voice and Data
AVG Average
AVI Audio Video Interleave [Microsoft]
AVL AVL Tree (named after its founders:
Adelson, Veiskii and Landis
AVP Attribute-Value Pair
AVR Automatic Voice Recognition
AVT Applied Voice Technology
AVVID Architecture for Voice Video & Integrated Data

AWE Advanced Wave Effects [Creative Lab]
AWG American Wire Gage
AWK (Unix language named after its authors...
Al Aho, Peter Weinberger and Brian Kernighan)
AWS Advanced Workstations and Systems (group) [IBM]
AWT Abstract Window Toolkit [Java]
AX Architecture Extended + Automatic Transmission
| TOP | UP to A | DN to C | BOTTOM |

BA Bell Atlantic (company)
BACP Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol
BAK Binary Adaptation Kit [Microsoft]
.BAK Backup (file name extension)
BAL Basic Assembly Language
BALUN Balanced Unbalanced (device)
BAM Boyan Action Module
BAPI Business Application Programming Interface [SAP]
BARTS Bell Atlantic Regional Timesharing
.BAS Basic Language (file name extension)
BASH Bourne Again Shell [Unix]
BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BASM Built-In Assembler
BAT Block Address Translation
.BAT Batch Processing (file name extension)
B2B Business-To-Business
BBS Bulletin Board System
B2C Business To Consumer
BCC Block Check Character
BCC: Blind Carbon Copy
BCD Binary Coded Decimal
B-CHANNEL Bearer Channel
BCL Base Class Libraries + Batch Command Language
BCN Beacon
BCNF Boyce-Codd Normal Form
BCP Best Current Practice + Bulk Copy Program
BCPL Basic Computer Programming Language
BCR Byte Count Register
BCS Bar Code Sorter
BDA Bios Data Area
BDC Backup Domain Controller
BDE Borland Database Engine [Borland]
BDLS Bidirectional Loop Switching
BDOS Basic Disk Operating System
BDR Bus Device Request
BE Below or Equal
B2E Business To Employees
BECN Backward Explicit Congestion Notification
BEDO Burst Extended Data Out
BEEP Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol
BEL Bell
BELLCORE Bell Communications Research
BER Basic Encoding Rules + Bit Error Rate
BERT Bit Error Rate Test/Tester
BF Bad Flag
B/F Background/Foreground
.BFC Briefcase (file name extension) [Microsoft]
BFF Binary File Format [IBM]
BFT Binary File Transfer
BGA Ball Grid Array
BGCOLOR Background Color [HTML]
BGE Branch if Greater or Equal
.BGI Borland Graphic Interface (file name extension)
BGP Border Gateway Protocol
BGT Branch if Greater Than
BHI Branch if Higher
BHIS Branch if Higher or Same
BHO Browser Helper Object [Spybot]
BI Binary Input
.BIB Bibliography (file name extension)
BiDi Bi-Directional
BIFET Bipolar Field Effect Transistor
BIFF Binary Interchange File Format
BIM Beginning of Information Marker
.BIN Binary (file name extension)
BINAC * Binary Automatic Computer
BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain
BINHEX Binary Hexadecimal
BIOS Basic Input/Output System
BIS Business Information System
BISDN Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network
BIST Built-In Self-Test
BIT Binary Digit
BITNET Because It's Time Network
BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
BIU Bus Interface Unit
BIW Business Intelligence Warehouse [SAP]
BIX Byte Information Exchange (BBS)
.BIZ Businesses (Domain Name) [Internet]
.BK! Backup (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
.B~K Backup (file name extension)
BKSP Backspace
BL Backlit + Bit Line
BLAST Bell Labs Layered Space Time +
Blocked Asynchronous Transmission (protocol)
[Communications Research Group]
.BLD BASIC Bload Graphics (file name extension)
BLE Branch if Less or Equal
BLER Block Error
BLI Business Logic Integration [Microsoft]
BLK Block
BLMC Buried Logic Macrocell
BLOB Binary Large Object
BLOG Web Log
BLOS Branch if Lower Or Same
BMI Branch if Minus
BMIC BusMaster Interface Controller [Intel]
BMP Basic Mapping Support + Basic Multilingual Plane +
Batch Message Processing Program
.BMP Bitmap (file name extension) [Paintbrush Format]
BNC Bayonet Neill-Concelman (connector used with
coaxial cable invented by Mr. Neill-Concelman) +
British Naval Connector
BNE Branch if Not Equal
BNF Backus-Naur Form (also Backus-Normal Form)

[developed by
John Backus and Peter Naur]
BNS Backbone Network Service
BO Binary Output
BOA Basic Object Adapter
BOB Break-out Box
BOC Basic Operator Console
BOF Beginning Of File
BOM Basic Online Memory [IBM] + Beginning Of Message
BOND Bandwidth On Demand
BOOTP Bootstrap Protocol [Internet]
BOPS Billion Operations Per Second
BORPQU Borland Pro Quattro
BORQU Borland Quattro
BOS Basic Operating System
BOT Beginning Of Table + Beginning of Tape + Robot
BP Base Pointer
BPB BIOS Parameter Block
BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Unit
Berkeley Packet Filter
BPI Bits Per Inch
BPL Branch If Plus + Broadband Over Power Lines
BPM Business Process Management [Microsoft]
BPP Bits Per Pixel
BPR Business Process Re-engineering [Linux]
BPS Bits Per Second + Bytes Per Second
BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying
BR Bad Register
BRGC Binary Reflected Gray Code
BRI Basic Rate Interface + Brain Response Interface
BS Backspace
BSAM Basic Sequential Access Method
BSC Base Station Controller + Binary Synchronous

.BSC Boyan Script (file name extension) [Boyan

BSCS Bachelor of Science (Degree) in Computer Science
BSD Berkely Software/Standard Distribution
BSF Bit Scan Forward
BSI British Standards Institute
BSM Basic Storage Module [IBM]
BSP Bulk Synchronous Parallelism
BSR Bit Scan Reverse
BS-RAM Burst Static RAM
BSS Block Started by Symbol
BST Binary Search Tree
BSY Busy
BSYNC Binary Synchronous Communications (protocol)
BT Bit Test
BTAM Basic Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]
BTB Branch Target Buffer
BTC Bit Test and Complement
BTI Business Type Identifier
BTP Batch Transfer Program
BTR Bit Test and Reset
BTS Base Transceiver Station + Bit Test and Set
BU Branch Unit
BUBL Bulletin Board for Libraries [Janet]
BUF Buffer
BUS Broadcast and Unknown Server
BVH Base Video Handler
BWM Block-Write Mode
B2X Binary To Hexadecimal [REXX]
BYTE Binary Element String
| TOP | UP to B | DN to D | BOTTOM |

C C Programming Language
.C C source code (file name extension) [C]
CA Certification Authority + Collision Avoidance
CAB Compressed Application Binary [Microsoft]
.CAB Cabinet (file name extension) [Microsoft]
CACLS Command-Line Access Control Lists [Microsoft]
CAD Computer Aided Design
CADD Computer Aided Design and Drafting
CADE Client/server Application Development Environment
CAE Client Application Enabler + Common Applications
Environment + Computer Aided Engineering
CAEN Chemically Assembled Electronic Nanocomputer
CAEX Computer Aided Exploration
CAG Column Address Generator
CAI Computer Aided Instruction
CAIRN Collaborative Advanced Interagency Research

CAL Calendar + Client Access License +
Computer Aided Learning
CALS Computer-Aided Acquisition in Logistic Support
CAM Common Access Method + Computer Aided

Manufacturing +
Contents Addressable Memory
CAN Cancel + Controller Area Network
CANBUS Conroller Area Network Bus
CAP Carrierless Amplitude and Phase-Modulation +
Central Arbitration Point +
Communication Application Platform +
Competitive Access Provider +
Computer Aided Publishing
.CAP Capture (file name extension)
CAPD Computing To Assist Persons With Disabilities

Hopkins University]
CAPE Concurrent Art-to-Product Environment
CAPS Capitals (Upper Case Letters) +
Cassette Programming System
CAPTCHA Completely Automatic Public Turing Test To Tell
Computers and Humans Apart
CAR Committed Access Rate [Cisco]
CARL Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries [Internet]
CART Computer-Assisted Radar Tomography
CAS Column Address Select/Strobe +
Communications Application Specification +
Computer Aided Styling
CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering
CASL Crosstalk Application Scripting Language [DCA]
CASS Computer Assisted Search Service
CASSIS Classified and Search Support Information System
CAT Computer Adaptive Test + Computer Aided Testing +
Computer Aided Tomography +
Computer Aided Transcription + Concatenate
.CAT Catalog (file name extension)
CATS Computer Assisted Training System
CAT5E (Cat 5e) Category 5e (cables)
CAT SCAN Computerized Axial Tomography Scan
CATV Community Antenna Television (this was the

name for what is now known as Cable TV)
CAU Controlled Access Unit
CAV Constant Angular Velocity
CAVE Computer Automatic Virtual Environment
CBC Cipher Block Chaining
CBCR Channel Byte Count Register
CBDS Connectionless Broadband Data Service
CBEMA Computer and Business Equipment
Manufacturers Association
CBGA Ceramic Ball Grid Array
CBI Computer Based Instruction\Instrumentation
CBL Computer Based Learning
.CBL COBOL source code (file name extension)
CBMS Computer-Based Mail System
CBN Community Based Networks
CBR Case Based Reasoning + Constant Bit Rate
CBT Computer Based Training
CBW Convert Byte to Word
CBX Computer-Controlled Branch Exchange
CC Cluster Controller
CC: Carbon Copy
CCD Charged-Coupled Device
CCFT Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube
CCI Common Client Interface + Copy Control Information
CCIE Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert [Cisco]
CCITT Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et
Telephonique/ Consultative Committee for

Telegraph and Telephone
CCL Connection/Cursor Control Language
CCM Corba Component Mode
CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate
CCNP Cisco Certified Network Professional
CCP Certified Computing Professional +
Console Command Processor
CC/PP Composite Capabilities/Preference Profile
CCS Common Command Set + Common Communications

Services +
Common Communications Support +
Continuous Composite Servo + Cryptographic

.CCS Color Calibration System (file name extension)
CCSIS Coded Character Set ID
CCSD Cellular Circuit-Switched Data
CCTLD Country Code Top-Level Domain
CD Carrier Detect + Change Directory +
Collision Detection + Color Display + Compact Disk
C/D Control Data
C2D Character To Decimal [REXX]
CDA Compound Document Architecture [DEC]
.CDA CD Audio-Track (file name extension)
CDBT Compact Disk-Based Training
CDC Connected Device Configuration +
Control Data Corporation
CD_CHRDY Card Channel Ready [IBM]
CD-DA Compact Disk - Digital Audio
CDDI Copper Distributed Data Interface
CDE Common Desktop Environment + Complex Data Entry
CD-E Compact Disk - Erasable
CDF Channel Definition Format
.CDF Comma Delimited Format (file name extension)
CDFS Compact Disc File System [Microsoft]
CD+G Compact Disk plus Graphics
CD-I Compact Disk - Interactive
CDIA Certified Document Imaging Architect
CDL Computer Design Language
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDMF Commercial Data Masking Facility [IBM]
CD-MO Compact Disk - Magneto Optical
CDO Collaboration Data Objects [Microsoft]
CDOS Concurrent Disk Operating System
CDP * Certificate In Data Processing (First

for Computer Professionals)
CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data
CDR Call Detail Record + Call Detail Recording +
Common Data Representation
.CDR CorelDRAW (file name extension) [Corel]
CD-R Compact Disk - Recordable
CD-RDX Compact Disk - Read Only Memory Data Exchange

CDRL Contract Data Requirements List
CD-ROM Compact Disk - Read Only Memory
CD-ROM-XA CD-ROM Extended Architecture
CD-RTOS Compact Disk - Real Time Operating System
CD-RW Compact Disk - Rewritable
CDS Current Directory Structure
CDSA Common Data Security Architecture
.CDT Corel Draw Template (file name extension)
CD-V Compact Disk - Video
CD-WO Compact Disk - Write Once
.CDX Compound Index (file name extension) [Fox Pro]
CD-XA Compact Disk - Extended Architecture
CE Cache Enable + Chip Enable + Collision Elimination

Consumer Elecronics + Convert Enable
CEB Conditional End Bracket
CEC Certified E-Commerce Consultant
CEG Continuous Edge Graphics
CEI Conducted Electromagnetic Interference
CELP Card Edge Low Profile (socket) [Intel]
CEMS Constituent Electronic Mail System
CEOP Conditional End Of Page
CER Canonical Encoding Rules
CERN The European Particle Physics Laboratory (initials
originally from Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche
CERT Computer Emergency Response Team
CFB Cipher Feedback + Configurable Function Block
.CFG Configuration (file name extension)
CFM Code Fragment Manager [Macintosh] +
Cubic Feet Per Minute
CFML ColdFusion Markup Language
CFP Call For Proposal
CFR Computerized Facial Recognition
CFS Caching/Common File System
CFV Call For Votes [Bitnet]
CG Control Gate
CGA Color Graphics Adapter
CGE Common Graphics Environment
CGI Computer Generated Images + Computer Graphics

CGI-BIN Common Gateway Interface - Binary
.CGM Computer Graphics Metafile (file name extension) +
Graph (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
CGMS Copy Generation Management System
CGS Continuous-Grain Silicon
CHAP Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol
CHAR Character
CHAT Conversational Hypertext Access Technology

CHCK Channel Check
CHCP Change Code Page
CHDIR Change Directory
CHFN Change Finger [Unix]
CHGRP Change Group
CHIPS Clearinghouse Interbank Payments System
.CHK CHKDSK (file name extension)
CHKDSK Check Disk
CHMOD Change Mode
CHOWN Change Owner
CHP Chapter
CHR Character
CHRP Common Hardware Reference Platform
CHS Cylinder Head Sector
CHTML Compact/Compressed HTML
CI Component Interface
CIA Current Instruction Address
CIAC Computer Incident Advisory Capability
CICS/VS Customer Information Control System/
Virtual Storage [IBM]
CID Charge-Injection Device +
CIDR Classless Inter-Domain Routing
CIF Common Interchange/Intermediate Format +
Crystallographic Information File +
Customer Information Feed
CIFS Common Internet File System
CIL Common Intermediate Language [ECMA]
CIM Common Information Model +
CompuServe Information Manager +
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
CIO Chief Information Officer
CIOCS Communication Input/Output Control System
CIP Command Interface Port + Common Indexing Protocol
CIR Committed Information Rate
CIRC Circular Reference +
Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code
CIS Card Information Structure + Client Information

System +
CompuServe Information Service +
Computer Information Systems + Contact Image

Sensor +
Customer Information System
CISC Complex Instruction Set Computing
CIT Computer-Integrated Telephony
CIVR Computer and Interactive Voice Response
CIW Certified Internet Webmaster
CIX Commercial Internet Exchange +
Compulink Information Exchange
CJLI Command Job Language Interpreter
CKD Count Key Data (device)
CLAR Channel Local Address Register
CLASS Client Access to Systems and Services +
Cooperative Library Agency for Systems and

Services +
Custom Local-Area Signaling Services
CLC Clear Carry Flag
CLD Clear Direction Flag
CLDC Connected Limited Device Configuration
CLEC Competitive Local Exchange Carrier
CLI Call-Level Interface + Clear Interrupt Flag +
Client Library Interface + Command Line Interface

Common Language Infrastructure/Interface
CLIB C Library
CLID Calling Line Identification
CLIST Command List
CLK Clock
CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol
CLOS Common Lisp Object System
CLP Cell Loss Priority + Constraint Logic Programming
.CLP Clipboard (file name extension) [Microsoft]
CLR Common Language Runtime [Microsoft]
CLS Clear Screen + Common Language Support
CLSID Class Identifier
CLTP Connectionless Transport Protocol
CLTS Clear Task Switch Flag
CLTV Constant Linear Time Velocity
CLUI Command Line User Interface
CLUT Color Look-Up Table
CLV Constant Linear Velocity
CM Centimeter + Control Mark + Corrective Maintenance
CMA Concert Multi-thread Architecture
CMAK Connection Manager Administration Kit [Microsoft]
CMC Common Mail Calls + Common Messaging Calls +
Communication Management Configuration +
Complement Carry Flag +
Computer-Mediated Communication [Internet]
CMD Circuit Mode Data
.CMD Command (file name extension)
CMF Creative Music Format
CNIDR Clearinghouse for Network Information and
Discovery and Retrieval [Internet]
CMIP Common Management Information Protocol
CMIS Common Management Information Services/System
CML Chemical Markup Language + Conceptual Modelling

Language +
Computer Managed Learning + Current Mode Logic
CMM Capability Maturity Model
CMMS Computerized Maintenance Management Software
CMMU Cache/Memory Management Unit [Motorola]
CMOS Coats-Mellon Operational Specification +
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
CMOV Conditional Move
CMP Compare + Computer
CMPS Compare Word String
CMS Call Management Server + Code Management System +
Compiler Monitor System + Conversation Monitor

CMTS Cable Modem Termination System
CMVC Configuration Management Version Control [IBM]
CMW Compartmented Mode Workstation
CMY Cyan-Magenta-Yellow (color model)
CMYK Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black (color model)
CNA Certified NetWare/Network Administrator
CNAPS Co-Processing Node Architecture for Parallel

CNC Computerized Numerical Control
CNE Certified NetWare Engineer
.CNF Configuration (file name extension)
CNG Calling (tone)
CNI Certified Novell Instructor [Novell]
CNIDR Clearinghouse for Networked Information and
Discovery and Retrieval [Internet]
CNN Composite Network Node
CNR Carrier to Noise Ratio + Communication Network

CNSS Core Nodal Switching Subsystem [Internet]
CNT Carbon Nanotube
.CNT Contents (file name extension)
CNV Conventional (pertaining to Memory)
CNVT Convert
CNX Certified Network Expert
CO Central Office + Command Output + Convert Out
COAST Card On A Stick (module)
COAX Coaxial Cable
COB Chip-On-Board
.COB COBOL source code (file name extension)
COBOL Common Business-oriented Language (See HLL)
.COD Code List (file name extension)
CODASYL * Conference on Data System Languages (Group that
designed COBOL)
CODE Client-Server Open Development Environment
CODEC Coder/Decoder + Compression/Decompression
COE Common Operating Environment
COEM Commercial Original Equipment Manufacturer
COFF Common Object File Format [Unix]
COGO Coordinate Geometry (Programming Language)
COL Collision + Computer Oriented Language
COLD Computer Output to Laser Disk
COLL Collision
COM Component Object Model [Microsoft] +
Computer Output Microfilm
.COM Command (file name extension) +
Commercial Business (Domain Name) [Internet]
COM1 First serial Port (asynchronous port)
COM2 Second serial Port
COM3 Third serial Port
COM4 Fourth serial Port
COMDEX Computer Dealers Exposition
COMET Cornell Macintosh Terminal Emulator
COMM Communications
COMMAT In Morse Code (.--.-.)(dot dash dash dot dash dot),
name of the sign to denote the Commercial At symbol "@".
(Adopted by the ITU in December 2003)
COMP Compare
COMP. Computers [USENET Newsgroup Category]
COMSAT Communications Satellite Corporation
CON Console (includes Keyboard and Screen)
COND Condition
CONFIG Configuration
CONS Connection-Oriented Network Service
CONTONE Continuous Tone
.COOP Cooperatives-Business (Domain Name) [Internet]
COPICS Communications Oriented Production Information
and Control System [IBM]
COR Common Object Runtime
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
COREN Corporation for Research and Enterprise Network
COS Compatible Operating System +
Customer Order Specification [Kodak/Fuji]
COSE Combined Office Standard Environment +
Common Open Software/Systems Environment
COSMIC Computer Software Management and Information
Center [NASA]
COSMOS Computer System for Mainframe Operations
COSS Common Object Services Specification
COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf (software)
CP Copy Protected
CPA Certified Public Accountant + Cost Per Action
CPAN Comprehensive Perl Archive Network
CPC Constant Point Calculation + Cost Per Click
CPCS Check Processing Control System [IBM]
CPE Central Processing Element +
Customer Premises Equipment +
Customer Provided Equipment
.CPE Cover Page (file name extension)
CPFR Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment
CPG Clock Pulse Generator
CPI Characters Per Inch + Clock Per Instruction +
Common Programming Interface [IBM]
.CPI Code Page Information (file name extension)

CPI-C Common Programming Interface for Communications

CPIO Copy In and Out [Unix]
CPL Current Privilege Level
.CPL Control Panel (file name extension)
CPLD Complex Programmable Logic Device
CPM Critical Path Method + Cryptography Provider

CP/M Control Program for Microcomputers [Digital

CPO Chief Privacy Officer
CPRM Content Protection for Recordable Media
CPS Certification Practice Statement +
Characters Per Second + Cycles Per Second
CPT Command Pass Through
CPU Central Processing Unit
CPW Commercial Processing Workload [IBM]
CR Carriage Return
CRAM Challenge-Response Authentication Mechanism +
Cyberspatial Reality Advancement Movement
CRAYON Create Your Own Newspaper
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
.CRD Cardfile (file name extension) +
Chord (music file name extension)
CREN Computer Research Education Network +
Corporation for Research and Education Networking
CRF Cable Retransmission Facility + Cross Reference

CRI Color Reproduction Indices
CRISP C Reduced Instruction Set Processor [AT&T Bell Labs]
CRL Certificate Revocation List
CR/LF Carriage Return/Line Feed
CRM Customer Relationship Management
CROM Control Read Only Memory
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
CRTC CRT Controller
CRUD Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete
CS Chip Select + Clear to Send + Code Segment
C/S Client/Server
CSA Calendaring and Scheduling API [IBM]
CSAR Channel System Address Register
CSCW Computer Supported Cooperative Work
CSD Circuit-Switched Data +
Computer Services Department +
Corrective Service Diskette [IBM]
CSDS Circuit Switched Data Service
CSE Certified System Engineer
CSFI Communication Subsystem For Interconnection
CSG Constructive Solid Geometry +
Consulting Services Group [Lotus]
CSI Code Sequence Identification +
Command Sequence Introducer +
CompuServe Incorporated
CSID Called Subscriber Identification
CSL Computer Sensitive Language
CSLIP Compressed Serial Line Interface Protocol

CSM Code Set Map (file) + Communications Services

Manager +
Control Strip Module [Macintosh]
CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access/with Collision

CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/with Collision

CSMS Customer Support Management System
CSN Card-Select Number
CSNET Computer Science Network
CSO Central Services Organization
CSP Certified Systems Professional +
Chip-Scale Packaging +
Commercial Service Provider +
Commercial Subroutine Package +
CompuCom Speed Protocol [CompuCom] +
Communicating Sequential Processes +
Cross System Product [IBM]
CSPDN Circuit Switched Public Data Network
CSRAM Custom Static RAM
CSS * Continuous System Simulator (Language)
CSS Cascading Style Sheet [Microsoft] +
Contact Start-Stop + Content Scrambling System
CSSM Client-Server Systems Management [IBM]
CS/SS Card Service/Socket Service
CSTA Computer-Supported Telephony Applications
CSU Channel Service/Switching Unit
CSV Circuit-Switched Voice +
Comma-Separated Value/Variable +
Common Services Verbs (interface) [Microsoft]
C2T Cable Changing Technology
C&T Chips and Technologies
CTB Cipher Type Byte
CTC Channel To Channel + Counter/Timer Chip
CTCP Client-To-Client Protocol
CTI Computer-Telephony Integration
CTL Complex Text Layout
CTOS Cassette Tape Operating System +
Computerized Tomography Operating System +
Convergent Technologies Operating System
CTPA Coax-to-Twisted-Pair Adapter
CTRCO * Calculating,Tabulating,Recording Company (The name

this company was changed to "International

Machines" by Thomas J. Watson, Sr.)
CTRL Control
CTS Clear To Send + Computer Telephony Solution [IBM]

Customer Telephone System
CTSS * Compatible Time Sharing System
CUA Common User Access [IBM]
CUB Cursor Backward
CUD Cursor Down
CUE Custom Updates and Extras (card) [Egghead

CUF Cursor Forward
CUI Character-Oriented User Interface +
Common User Interface [IBM]
CUP Cursor Position
CUPID Completely Universal Processor I/O Design [AST]
.CUR Cursor (file name extension)
CUSIP Committee for Uniform Security Identification
Procedures [U.S. Treasury]
CUT Control Unit Terminal
CUTE Clarkston University Terminal Emulator
CUU Cursor Up
CVE Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures [US-CERT]
CVF Compressed Volume File
CVGA Color Video Graphics Array
CVIA Computer Virus Industry Association
CVS Computer Vision Syndrome + Concurrent Versions System
CVT Convert
CVW CodeView for Windows
CWA Competitive Web Analysis
CWD Convert Word to Double Word +
Change Working Directory [Internet]
CWIS Campus Wide Information Service/System [Internet]

Community Wide Information Service/System

C2X Character To Hexadecimal [REXX]
CXML Commerce Extensible Markup Language
CYL Cylinder
CYMK Cyan-Yellow-Magenta-Black (color model)
| TOP | UP to C | DN to E | BOTTOM |

D/A Digital to Analog
DAA Data Access Arrangement +
Decimal Adjust for Addition
DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting
DAC Data Acquisition and Control + Device Access Code

Digital to Analog Converter +
Dual Attachment Concentrator
DACL Discretionary Access Control List
DACTLU Deactive Logical Unit
DAD Desktop Application Director [Borland]
DAE Digital Audio Extraction
DAF Destination Address Field
DAI Distributed Artificial Intelligence
DAL Data Access Language [Apple Computer] +
Data Access Layer + Disk Access Lockout
DAM Data Acquisition and Monitoring
DAMA Demand Assigned Multiple Access
DAO Data Access Object [Microsoft] + Disk At Once
DAP Data/Directory Access Protocol +
Developer Assistance Program +
Dynamic Application Partitioning [IBM]
DAPIE Developers Application Programming Interface

DARI Database Application Remote Interface [IBM]
DARMS Digital Alternate Realization of Musical Symbols
DART Digital Audio Reconstruction Technology
DAS Decimal Adjust for Subtraction +
Dual-Attached Station
DASD Direct Access Storage Device [IBM]
DAT Digital Audio Tape + Disk Array Technology
.DAT Data (file name extension)
DATACOM Data Communications
DAV Digital Audio-Video +
Distributed Authoring and Versioning
DAVIC Digital Audio-Visual Council
dB Decibel
DB Data Base + Data Buffer + Device Bay
dBA Adjusted Decibel
.dba Date Book Archive (file name extension) [Palm]
DBBS Dynamic Bass Boot System
DBC Device Bay Controller
DBCS Delivery Bar Code Sorter + Double-Byte Character

.DBF Database Format (file name extension)
DBIS Dun & Bradstreet Information Services
.DBK Docbook (format) (file name extension)
dBm Decibels to a Milliwatt
DBM Data Base Manager
DBMS Data Base Management System
DBR DOS Boot Record
DBS Data Base Server +
Direct (to home) Broadcast (satellite) System
DBV Digital Broadcast Video
DBWR Database Writer [Oracle]
DB2 Database 2
DC Data Collection + Data Communication + Data

Control +
Device Control + Direct Current
D2C Decimal To Character [REXX]
DCA Digital Communications Associates +
Document Content Architecture [IBM]
DCAF Distributed Console Access Facility [IBM]
DCAM Digital Camera + Direct Chip Attach Module
DCB Device Control Block + Disk Coprocessor Board

DCC Data Country Code + Digital Command Control +
Digital Compact Cassette + Direct Cable/Client

+ Display Combination Code
DCD Data Carrier Detect
DCE Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment +
Data Communications Equipment +
Distributed Computing Environment [OSF] +
Distributed Computing Equipment
DCED Distributed Computing Environment Daemon
DCF Data Communication Facility [IBM] +
Data Compression Facility +
Data Count Field [IBM] +
Design Rule for Camera File Systems +
Driver Configuration File [Lotus]
D-CHANNEL Data Channel
DCI Digital Camera Images + Display Control Interface
DCL Data Control Language + Declaration +
DEC Command Language [DEC] +
Device Clear + Digital Control Logic +
Digital Command Language [Digital]
DCML Dynamic Configuration Markup Language
DCOM Distributed Component Object Model
DCP Device Control Protocol +
Digital Light Processing [TI]
DCS Data Collection System + Data Control System +
Desktop Color Separation + Distributed Control

DCT Discrete Cosine Transform
.DCT Dictionary (file name extension)
DCU Data-Cache Unit
DD Day + Digital Display + Double Density
DDA Distributed Data Access + Domain-Defined Attribute
DDB Device Dependent Bitmap + Device Descriptor Block
DDC Digital Data Channel [VESA] + Display Data Channel
DDCMP Digital Data Communications Message Protocol [DEC]
DDC1 Display Data Channel One
DDCS Distributed Database Connection Services [IBM]
DDD Direct Distance Dialing
DDE Direct Data Entry + Dynamic Data Exchange

DDEML Dynamic Data Exchange Manager Library [Microsoft]
DDF Display Data Channel + Dynamic Data Formatting

DDI Device Driver Interface +
Digital Document Interchange + Direct Dial In
DDK Device Driver Kit [Microsoft Windows]
DDL Data Definition Language + Data Description

DDM Distributed Data Management
DDN Defense Data Network
DDNS Dynamic Domain Naming System
DDOS Distributed Denial Of Service
DDP Datagram Delivery Protocol +
Distributed Data Processing
DDR Dynamic Document Review [Symantec]
DDR-SDRAM Double Data Rate-SDRAM
DDS Data Description Specification +
Digital Dataphone Service [AT&T] + Design Data

Sheet +
Digital Data Storage + Distributed Database

DDX Digital Data Exchange
DE Device End
DEA Data Encryption Algorithm + Disposable Email

DEC Decrement + Device Clear + Digital Equipment

DECNET Digital Equipment Corporation Networking

DEF Desktop Functional Equivalent [Compaq]
.DEF Definitions + Defaults (file name extensions)
DEFRAG Defragment
DEK Data Encryption Key
DEL Delete
DELSTR Delete String [REXX]
.DEM Demonstration (file name extension)
DEN Directory Enabled Network +
Document Enabled Networking [Novell-Xerox]
DEP Data Execution Protection [Microsoft]
DER Distinguished Encoding Rules
DES Data Encryption Standard + Data Entry Sheet
.DES Description (file name extension)
DET Device Execute Trigger
DEV Device
DF Data Field + Default + Destination Field +
Device Flag + Double Flag
DFC Data Flow Control
DFD Data Flow Diagram
DFDR Digital Flight Data Recorder
DFM Design For Manufacturability [IBM]
DFP Digital Flat Panel
DFS Distributed File System
DFSMS Data Facility Storage Management Subsystem [IBM]
DFT Design For Testability + Diagnostic Function Test

Discrete Fourier Transform +
Distributed Function Terminal
DFU Data File Utility
DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHL Dynamic Head Loading
.DHP Dr. Halo PIC (file name extension)
DI Data In + Destination Index
DIA Document Interchange Architecture [IBM]
DIAD Delivery Information Acquisition Device [UPS]
DIB Device Independent Bitmap +
Directory Information Base +
Dual Independent Bus [Intel]
DIBOL DEC Business Oriented Language
.DIC Dictionary (file name extension)
DICOM Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine
DID Direct Inward Dialing
DIDS Distributed Intrusion Detection System
DIF Data Interchange Format
DIFFSENS Differential Sense
DIIP Direct Interrupt Identification Port
DILA Direct-Drive Image Light Amplifier
DIME Direct Internet Message Encapsulation
DIMM Dual In-Line Memory Module
DIN Deutsche Industrie Norm (German equivalent of EIA)
DIO Data Input-Output
DIP Dialup Internet Protocol [Internet] +
Digital Imaging Processing +
Dual In-line Package + Dual In-line Pin
DIR Directory (file)
DIS Distributed Interactive Simulation +
Draft International Standard +
Dynamic Impedance Stabilization [CompuCom]
DISA Data Interchange Standards Association +
Direct Inward System Access
DISP Displacement (offset)
DIST Digital Image Scaling Technology
DIT Directory Information Tree
DIV Divide
DIVE Direct Interface Video Extension [OS/2 Warp]
DIVX Digital Video Express
DIW D-Inside Wire [AT&T]
DIX Digital-Intel-Xerox (Original Ethernet Standard)
.DIZ Description In Zip (file name extension)
DL Download (also D/L)
DL/1 Data Manipulation Language 1 [IBM]
DLB Dynamic Load Balancing
DLC Data Link Control (protocol) [IBM] +
Distributed Loop Carrier
DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier
DLD Display List Driver
DLE Data Link Escape
DLL Dynamic Link Library
DLM Distributed Lock Manager + Dynamic Link Module
DLP Digital Light Processing [TI]
DLPI Data Link Provider Interface
DLR DOS LAN Requester
DLS Data Link Switching [IBM] + Downloadable Sounds
DLT Digital Linear Tape
DM Distributed Memory
DMA Direct Memory Access/Addressing +
Document Management Alliance
DMAC DMA Controller
DMACS Distributed Manufacturing Automation & Control

DMD Digital Micromirror Device [TI]
DME Direct Memory Execution +
Distributed Management Environment
DMF Distribution Media Format [Microsoft]
DMI Desktop Management Interface
DML Data Manipulation Language +
Dialog Markup Language [W3C]
DMM Digital Multimeter
DMMS Dynamic Memory Management System
DMOS Double-diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
DMP Dot Matrix Printer
DMPC Distributed Memory Parallel Computer
DMPP Distributed Memory Parallel Processor
DMQS Display Mode Query and Set [IBM]
DMS Data Management Software + Data/Document
Management System
DMSD Digital Multistandard Decoding
DMSDK Digital Media Software Development Kit [SGI]
DMSS Distributed Mass Storage System
DMT Digital/Discrete Multi-Tone
DMTF Desktop Management Task Force
DMY Day Month Year
DMZ Demilitarized Zone
DN Down
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
DNC Direct Numerical Control
DNIC Data Network Identification Code
DNIE Digital Natural Image Engine
DNIS Dialed Number Identification Service
DNS Domain Naming System
DO Data Out + Distributed Objects
DOA Dead On Arrival
.DOC Document + Documentation (file name extensions)
DOCSIS Data Over Cable-Service Interface Specification
DOCSV Data Over Circuit-Switched Voice
DOE Distributed Objects Environment/Everywhere
DOIP Dial Other Internet Providers [IBM]
DO-IT Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and
DOM Document Object Model [W3C]
DOMF Distributed Object Management Facility
DOS Denial Of Service + Disk Operating System
DOSEM DOS Emulation
.DOT Document Template (file name extension)
DOV Data Over Voice
DOW Day Of Week
DP Data Processing + Dot Pitch
DPA Demand Protocol Architecture [3Com] +
Document Printing Architecture
DPAM Demand Priority Access Method
DPAREN Data Parity Enable [IBM]
DPB Drive Parameter Block
DPC Direct Program Control
DPI Distributed Protocol Interface + Dots Per Inch
DPL Descriptor Privilege Level
DPM Digital Panel Meter
DPMA Data Processing Management Association
DPMI DOS Protected Mode Interface [Microsoft]
DPMS Digital Power Management Signaling +
Display Power Management Support
DPO Data Phase Optimization
DPOF Digital Print Order Format
DPS Document Processing System
DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying
DPtoTP Display Coordinates to Tablet Coordinates
DQDB Distributed Queue Dual Bus
DQL Data Query Language
DR Data Received
D/R Direct or Reverse
DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory
DRAW Direct Read After Write
DR.BOND Dial-up Router Bandwidth On Demand [NEC]
DRDA Distributed Relational Database
Algorithm/Architecture [IBM]
DR-DOS Digital Research-Disk Operating System
DRDW Direct Read During Write
DRE Direct Recording Electronic (voting systems)
DRI Declarative Referential Integrity +
Digital Research Incorporated
DRM Digital Rights/Distributed Resource Management
DRO Data Request Output + Destructive Read-Out
DRS Document Registration System
.DRS Driver Resource (file name extension)

DRV Drive
.DRV Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see

.DRW Draw + Drawing (file name extensions)
DS Data Segment + Data Send + Data Server + Double

D/S Dhrystone Per Second
DS3 Digital Signal Level 3
DSA Digital Signature Algorithm + Directory System

DSAP Destination Service Access Point
DSD Direct Stream Digital [Sony-Philips]
DSDD Double Sided, Double Density (diskette)
DSE Data Storage Equipment
DSEA Display Station Emulation Adapter
DSECT Dummy Control Section
DSHD Double Sided, High Density (diskette)
DSIG Digital Signature
DSIS Distributed Support Information Standard
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
ADSLAsymmetric DSL
BDSLBroadband DSL
CDSLConsumer DSL [Rockwell]
FDSLFixed Directory Subscriber List
HDSLHigh-Bit-Rate DSL +
High-Data-Rate DSL
IDSLIntegrated Services Digital Network DSL
RDSLRate-Adaptive DSL
SDSLSingle-Line DSL +
Symmetric DSL
VDSLVery-High-Bit-Rate DSL
VADSLVery-High-Rate Asymmetric DSL
VDSLVery-High-Data-Rate DSL
DSL Dynamic Simulation Language
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
DSM Distributed Shared Memory +
Domain-Specific Modeling
DSMA Digital Sense Multiple Access
DSML Directory Services Markup Language
DSN Data Source Name + Delivery Service Notification
DSO Dynamic Shared Object
DSOM Distributed System Object Model
DSP Delivery Service Partner +
Digital Signal Processing/Processor +
Digital Sound Processor +
Directory Synchronization Protocol [Lotus]
DSPT Display Station Pass-Thru [IBM]
DSQD Double Sided, Quad Density (diskette)
DSR Data Set Ready + Device Status Register +
Device Status Report
DSS Decision Support System + Digital Signature

Standard +
Digital Spread Spectrum + Direct Station Selector
DSSA Domain Specific Software Architecture
DSSI Digital Standard Systems Interconnect [DEC]
DSSS Direct-Sequencing Spread Spectrum
DSSSL Document Style Semantics and Specifications

DSTN Double Supertwisted Nematic
DSU Data Service/Switching Unit + Digital Service Unit
DSVD Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data
DSW Data Status Word + Device Status Word
DSX Digital Signals Cross-Connect
D2T2 Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer (printing)
DTA Disk Transfer Area
.DTA Data (file name extension)
DTC Desktop Conferencing
DTCP Digital Transmission Copy Protection
[Hitachi, Intel, Panasonic, Sony, Toshiba]
DTD Document Type Definition
DTE Data Terminal Equipment + Dumb Terminal Emulator
DTF Distributed Test Facility
DTL Dialogue Tag Language [IBM] + Diode-Transistor

DTM Digital Terrain Mapping
DTMF Data Tone Multiple Frequency + Dual Tone

DTP Desktop Publishing + Distributed Transaction

DTR Data Terminal Ready + Data Transfer Rate
DTS Digital Theatre Systems + Digital Transceiving System
Distributed Traffic Shaping [Cisco]
DTSS Dartmouth Time Sharing System
DTV Desktop Video + Digital Television
DTVC Desktop Video Conferencing
DU Disk Usage
DUA Directory User Agent
DUAT Direct User Access Terminal
DUN Dial-Up Networking [Microsoft]
DUNCE Dial Up Network Connection Enhancement
DV Digital Video
.DV DESQview Script (file name extension)
DVC Desktop Video Conferencing + Digital Video Camera

Dual Voice Coil
DVD Digital Video Disk
DVD-A Digital Video Disk-Audio
DVD-AR Digital Video Disk-Audio Recording
DVD-R Digital Video Disk-Recordable
DVD-RAM Digital Versatile Disc-RAM
DVD-ROM Digital Versatile Disc-ROM
DVD-SR Digital Video Disk-Stream Recording
DVD-VR Digital Video Disk-Video Recording
DVE Digital Video Effect
DVI Digital Video Interactive + Digital Visual

.DVI Device Independent (file name extension)
DVM Digital Volt Meter
DVMRP Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol

DVOF Digital Video Over Fiber
DVR Digital Video/Voice Recorder
.DVR Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see

DW Data Warehousing
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer
DWG Drawing
DWMT Discrete Wavelet Multitone
DWT Discrete Wavelet Transform
D2X Decimal To Hexadecimal [REXX]
.DXB Drawing Interchange Binary (file name extension)
DXC Data Exchange Control
DXF Data Exchange File + Drawing Exchange Format
DXI Data Exchange Interface
DYNSLT Dynamic Select [IBM]
DYNSRC Dynamic Source
| TOP | UP to D | DN to F | BOTTOM |

EA Effective Address + Extended Attribute [OS/2]
EAI Enterprise Application Integration
EAP Extensible Authentification Protocol
EAR Enterprise Archive + External Access Register
EARN European Academic Research Network
EAROM Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory
EARS Electronic Access to Reference Services +
Electronic Authoring and Routing System [DEC] +
Explicit Archive and Retrieval System [Langley

EATA Enhanced AT Bus Attachment
EAX Environmental Audio Extensions [Creative]
EB Exabyte (1,024 petabytes)
(One Billion Billion characters of information)
EBC EISA Bus Controller
EBCT Electron Beam Computed Tomography
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

EBI Equivalent Background Input +
Extended Background Investigation
EBNF Extended Backus-Naur Form
EBOOK Electronic Book
EBPP Electric Bill Presentment and Payment
EBR Extended Boot Record
EBS Event-Based Sampling
EBT Electronic Benefits Transfer
EBXM Electronic Business XML
EC Electronic Commerce + Error Control
ECAL Enjoy Computing And Learn
ECAT Electronic Card Assembly and Test [IBM]
ECB Electronic Codebook + Event Control Block
ECC Elliptic Curve Crypto + Error Check Code +
Error Checking and Correction + Error Correction

ECD Enhanced Color Display + Enhanced Compact Disk
ECDL European Computer Driving Licence
ECHO European Commission Host Organization [Internet]
ECI External Call Interface
ECL Emitter Coupled Logic
ECM Electronic Control Module
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association
ECN Electronic Communications Network
ECNE Enterprise Certified NetWare Engineer [Novell]
ECP Enhanced/Extended Capabilities Port [Microsoft]
ECS Enhanced Chip Set
ECTL Electronic Communal Temporal Lobe
ECU EISA Configuration Utility
ED Erase Display
EDA Electronic Design Automation +
Embedded Document Architecture [Go Corporation]
EDB Embedded Database
EDC Electronic Digital Computer +
Enhanced Data Correction +
Error Detection and Correction
EDDC Extended Distance Data Cable
EDE Encrypt-Decrypt-Encrypt
EDG Electronic Program Guide
EDGAR Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval
EDGE Enhanced Data-Rates for Global Evolution
EDI Electronic Data Interchange +
Electronic Document Interchange [DEC]
EDIF Electronic Design Interchange Format
EDIFACT EDI for Administration Commerce and Transport
EDL Edit Decision List
EDLC Ethernet Data Link Control
EDLIN Editor (Line Text)
EDMS Electronic Document Management System
EDO Extended Data Out
EDOS Enhanced DOS for Windows
EDP Electronic Data Processing
EDPM Electronic Data Processing Machine
EDRAM Enhanced/Eraseable/Extended Dynamic Random Access

EDS Electronic Data Systems (corporation)
EDSAC * Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator
EDTV Enhanced Definition Television
.EDU Educational Institutions (Domain Name) [Internet]
EDVAC * Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
(First stored-program digital computer)
EE Extended Edition [IBM]
EEC Extended Error Correction
EEG Electroencephalogram
EEL Epsilon Extension Language
EEM Extended Memory Management
EEMAC Electrical & Electronic Manufacturers of Canada
EEMS Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification
EEPI Electronic Entertainment Policy Initiative
EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only

EES Escrow Encryption Standard
EFA Extended File Attribute
EFF Electronic Frontier Foundation
EFI Electromechanical Frequency Interference +
Electronics For Imaging +
Extensible Firmware Interface
EFIGS English, French, Italian, German, Spanish
EFL Emitter Follower Logic
E-FORM Electronic Form
EFS Encrypting File System
EFTS Electronic Funds Transfer System
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter
EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol
EGREP Extended Global Regular Expression Print [Unix]
EHCI Enhanced Host Controller Interface
EHLLAPI Emulator High Level Language Application
Programming Interface [IBM]
EIA Electronic Industries Association
EIDE Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
EIM Electronic Image Management
EIS Executive Information System
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture
EJB Enterprise JavaBeans
EL Electroluminescent (display) + Erase Line
ELAN Emulated Local Area Network
ELC Embedded Linking and Control
ELD Electronic License Distribution
ELEC Enterprise Local Exchange Carrier
ELF Executable and Linking Format +
Extremely Low Frequency
ELOS Embedded-Objects Linked Across Systems
ELS Entry Level System
EM Electronic Mail + Emphasized + End of Medium +
Expanded Memory
EMA Electronic Mail Association +
Enterprise Management/Memory Architecture
EMACS Editing Macros [Unix]
E-MAIL Electronic Mail
EMB Extended Memory Block [LIM/AST]
EMBARC Electronic Mail Broadcast to a Roaming Computer
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility + Enhanced Memory

Chip +
E-Mail Connection + Extended Math Coprocessor
EMCC * Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company (World's first

company, founded by Presper Eckart and John

who invented and built the first UNIVAC)
EMF Extended Metafile Format [Microsoft]
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
.EML Electronic Mail (file name extension)
EMM Expanded Memory Manager
EMP Electro-Magnetic Pulse
EMR Electro-Magnetic Radiation +
Enhanced Metafile Record
EMS Electronic Mail System +
Electronic Message Service +
Energy Management System +
Enhanced Messaging Service +
Expanded Memory Specification [LIM]
EMSAPI Extended Messaging Services Application
Programming Interface
EMWAC European Microsoft Windows NT Academic Centre
.ENC Encoded (file name extension)
ENDEC Encoder/Decoder
ENDS Ends Segment
ENIAC * Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and
Computer (First fully electronic digital computer)
ENQ Enquiry
ENSS Exterior Nodal Switching Subsystem [Internet]
EOA End Of Address
EOB End Of Block
EOC End Of Conversion
EOF End Of File + Enterprise Objects Framework
[Next Computer]
EOI End Of Interrupt + End Or Identify
EOJ End Of Job
EOL End Of Line + End Of List
EOM End Of Message
EOR Exclusive OR (Also XOR)
EOS Earth Observing System [NASA] + End Of String +
Error Correction Code on SIMM
EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System

EOT Embedded Open Type (format) [Microsoft] +
End Of Table + End Of Tape (marker) + End Of Text

End Of Transmission
EP Electrophotographic Engine
EPC Electronic Product Code
EPIC Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (chip)

EPG Electronic Program Guide
EPL Effective Privilege Level
EPLD Electrically Programmable Logic Device
EPM Enhanced Editor for Presentation Manager [IBM] +
Enterprise Process Management [IBM]
EPP Enhanced Parallel Port
EPROCESS Executive Process
EPROM Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory +
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
.EPS Encapsulated PostScript (file name extension)
EPSF Encapsulated PostScript Files
ERA Extended Registry Attributes
ERAS Electronic Routing and Approval System [Hughes

ERD Emergency Repair Disk + Entity Relationship

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ERLL Enhanced Run Length Limited
ERMA * Electronic Recording Method, Accounting
[General Electric]
EROM Erasable Read Only Memory
EROS Earth Resources Observation System
[U.S. Geological Survey]
ERP Effective Radiated Power +
Enterprise Resource Planning
ERR Error
ER/RC Extended Result/Response Code
ERU Emergency Recovery Utility [Microsoft]
ES Extra Segment
ESA Enterprise Systems Architecture [IBM] +
European Space Agency
ESB Enterprise Service Bus
ESC EISA System Component + Escape
ESCD Extended System Configuration Data
ESCM Extended Services Communications Manager [IBM]
ESCON Enterprise System Connection (Architecture) [IBM]
ESC/P Epson Standard Code for Printers
ESD Electronic Software Distribution +
Electrostatic Discharge + Emergency Startup Disk
ESDI Enhanced Small/System Device Interface
ESF Extended Superframe
ESI End System Identifier +
Enhanced Serial Interface (specification) [Hayes]
ESMR Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio
ESN Electronic Security/Serial Number
ESP Emulation Sensing Processor +
Encapsulating Security Payload (header) +
Enhanced Serial Port [Hayes] + Enhanced Service

Provider +
Enterprise System Platcorm + Estimated Selling

Price +
Eudora Sharing Protocol [Qualcomm]
ESR Event Service Routine
ESS Electronic Switching System
ESSID Extended Service Set Identifier
ESU Electro-Static Unit
ET Enhancement Technology
ETACS Extended Total Access Communication System [IBM]
ETANN Electrically Trainable Analog Neural
Network (chip) [Intel]
ETB End of Transmission Block
ETC Electronic Toll Collection +
Enhanced Throughput Cellular (modem protocol)

E-TEXT Electronic Text
ETF Enriched Text Format
ETOM Electron-Trapping Optical Memory
ETPL Endorsed Tempest Products List
ETS Econometric Time Series
ETX End Of Text
EU Execution Unit
.EU European Union (Domain Name) [Internet]
EUC End-User Computing + Extended Unix Code [IBM]
EUDC End-User Defined Character
EUDORA (Named after author of story:
"Why I Live at the P.O.", Ms. Eudora Welty)
EUI End-User Interface
EULA End-User License Agreement
EUVL Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
EVDO Evolution Data Only/Optimized
EVE Extensible VAX Editor
EVGA Extended Video Graphics Array +
Extended Video Graphics Adapter
EWAN Emulator Without A Good Name [Internet]
EWS Employee Written Software [IBM]
ExCA Exchangeable Card Architecture [Intel]
.EXE Executable (file name extension)
EXE2BIN Program used to convert an (.EXE) file to binary
format (.COM) file
EXIF Exchangeable Image File Format
EXM Enterprise Messaging Exchange [Lotus]
EXP Exponent
EXT External
EXTRN External Reference
E-ZINE Electronic Magazine
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FAB Computer-Chip Fabrication Plant
FAC File Access Code
FAMOS Floating Gate Avalanche MOS
FANS Future Air Navigation System
FAP File Access Protocol
FAPI Family Application Program Interface
FAQ Frequently Asked Question
FARNET Federation of American Research Networks

FASIC Function and Algorithm-Specific Integrated Circuit
FAT File Allocation Table
FAX Facsimile
.FAX Fax (file name extension)
FBC Find By Content
FC/AL Fiber Channel/Arbitrated Loop
FCB File Control Block
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FCC: File Carbon Copy
FCCSET Federal Coordinating Council for
Science, Engineering and Technology
FC/EL Fiber Channel/Enhanced Loop
FCI Flux Changes per Inch
FCL Fibre Channel Loop
FCPGA Flip Chip Pin Grid Array [Intel]
FCR FIFO Control Register
FCRAM Fast-Cycle RAM
FCS Fiber Channel Standard + Frame Check Sequence
FD Floppy Disk + Floppy Drive + Full Duplex
FDC Floppy Disk Controller
FDDI Fiber Digital Device Interface +
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDHD Floppy Drive High Density
FDIR Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery
FDISK Fixed Disk
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
FDX Full Duplex
FEC Forward Error Correction
FECN Forward Explicit Congestion Notification
FED Field Emission/Emitter Display
FEFO First-Ended, First-Out
FEP Front End Processor
FEPI Front End Programming Interface
FERAM Ferroelectric RAM
FESDK Far East Software Development Kit [Microsoft]
FET Field Effect Transistor
FF Flip-Flop + Form Feed
FFD Full Funtion Device
FFDC First Failure Data Capture [IBM]
FFS Fast File System
FFST First Failure Support Technology [IBM]
FFT Fast Fourier Transform + Final Form Text [IBM]
FG Floating Gate
FGREP Fixed Global Regular Expression Print [Unix]
FHS Fan Heat-Sink
FHSS Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
FIA File Integrity Assessment
FIB Forwarding Information Base
FIF Fractal Image Format
FIFO First-In, First-Out
FILO First-In, Last-Out
FINDSTR Find Strings
FIP File Processor Buffering
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard
FIR Fast Infrared + Finite Impulse Response
.FIRM Business or Firm (Domain Name) [Internet]
FIRST Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams
FITS Flexible Image Transport System
FIU Fingerprint Identification Unit [Sony]
FIX Federal Internet Exchange
FK Foreign Key
FLA Four Letter Acronym
FLC Ferro-electric Liquid Crystal
FLD Field
FLIR Forward Looking Infrared (system)
FLL FoxPro Link Library [Microsoft Fox Pro]
FLOPS Floating Point Operations Per Second
.FLR Folder (file name extension)
FLV Flash Video
FM Frequency Modulation
FMD Fluorescent Multilayer Disk
FMRI Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
FMS Forms Management System
FMT Format
FMV Full Motion Video
FNT Font
FOCUS Forum of Control Data Users
FOD Fax On Demand
FOG First Osborne Group
FOIP Fax Over Internet Protocol
FOIRL Fiber Optic Inter Repeater Link [IEEE]
FOLDOC Free On-Line Dictionary Of Computing
FOM Fiber Optics Modem
.FON Font + Phone + Phone Directory (all file name
.FOR Fortran source code (file name extension)
FORTH (Programming Language)(See HLL)
FORTRAN Formula Translator (Programming Language)(See HLL)
FOSE Federal Office Systems Exposition
FOSI Format Option Specification Instance
FOSSIL Fido/Opus/Seadog Standard Interface Layer
FPC Floating Point Calculation
FPCE Floating-Point C Extension (specification)
FPGA Field Programmable Gate-Array
FPLA Field Programmable Logic-Array
FPM Fast Page Mode
FPP Fixed Path Protocol + Floating Point Processor
FPR Floating-Point Register
FPS Favorite Picture Selection + Frames Per Second
FPT Forced Perfect Termination
FPU Floating Point Unit
FPX FlashPix (format) [Kodak]
FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name [Internet]
FRAD Frame Relay Access Device +
Frame Relay Assembler/Disassembler
FRAG Fragment + Fragmentation
FRAM Ferroelectric Random-Access Memory
FRC Functional Redundancy Checking
FRED Frame Editor + Front-End to Dish
FRMR Frame Reject
FRPI Flux Reversals Per Inch
FRS Family Radio Service
.FRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)
FS File Separator
FSB Front Side Bus
FSD File System Driver [OS/2]
FSE Full Screen Editor
FSF Free Software Foundation [Internet]
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
FSN Full Service Network
FSO Free Space Optics
FSP File Service Protocol
FSR Free System Resources
FST Flat Square Tube (monitor)
F/T Full Time
FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management +
File Transfer and Access Method
FTL Flash Transition Layer [Intel]
FTM Flat Tension Mask [Zenith]
FTP File Transfer Protocol [Internet]
FTPD File Transfer Protocol Daemon
FTTB Fiber To The Basement
FTTC Fiber To The Curb
FTTN Fiber To The Neighborhood
FTS Federal Telecommunication System
FTX Fault Tolerant Unix
FUI File Update Information
FUNC Function
FUS Fast User Switching
FVT Full Video Translation
FWTK Firewall Toolkit
FXP File Exchange Protocol
FYI For Your Information
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GA General Availability
GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
GAC Global Assembly Cache
GAL Generic Array Logic
GAMS General Algebraic Mathematical System
GAPI Gateway Application Programming Interface
GART Graphics Address Relocation Table
GATT Graphics Address Translation Table
GAWD Global Access Wireless Database
Gb Gigabit (1,024 megabits) +
(One Billion Bits of Information)
GB Gigabyte (1,024 megabytes) +
(One Billion Characters of Information)
GCC GNU C-Compiler [Unix]
GCCD Glass-Passivated Ceramic Chip Diode
GCR Group Code Recording
GDA Global Data Area + GNOME Data Access
GDB GNU Debugger
GDDM Graphics Data Display Manager
GDG Generation Data Group [IBM]
GDI Graphical Device Interface
GDLC Generic Data Link Control [IBM]
GDP Graphic Draw Primitive
GDT Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing +
Global Descriptor Table +
Graphics Development Toolkit
GECOS General Electric Comprehensive Operating System
GEIS General Electric Information Service (company)
GEM Graphics Environment Manager (DRI Program)
GENIE General Electric Network for
Information Exchange
GEO Geostationary Earth Orbit
GEOS Global Entity Ordering System +
GEOS Graphic Environment Operating System [Geoworks]
GET Get Execute Trigger
GFI General Format Identifier + Ground-Fault

GGP Gateway-Gateway Protocol [Internet]
GHZ Gigahertz
.GID Topics (file name extension) [Microsoft]
.GIF Graphics Interchange Format (file name extension)
GIG-E Gigabit Ethernet
GIGO Garbage In, Garbage Out
GII Global Information Infrastructure
GILS Government Information Locator Service
GIMP GNU Image Manipulation Program
GIMPS Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search
GINA Graphical Identification and Authentication
GIS Geographic Information System +
Global Information Solutions [AT&T]
GIX Global Internet Exchange [Internet]
GKS Graphical Kernel System
GL Graphics Language
G/L General Ledger
GLIS Global Land Information System [US Geological

GLL Geograpic Position-Latitude/Longitude
GLM General Linear Models
GLOBE Global Learning by Observations to Benefit
the Environment [Internet]
.GLY Glossary (file name extension) [Microsoft Word]
GMDI Gigabit Media-Dependent Interface
GML Generalized Markup Language
GMP Global Mobile Professional
GMR Giant Magneto-Resistive (read head technology)
GMRS General Mobile Radio Service
GMS Global Management System +
Global Messaging Service [Novell]
GMT Greenwich Mean Time
GND Ground (signal/system)
GNN Global Network Navigator
GNU Gnu's Not Unix (operating system)
GNOME GNU Network Object Model Environment
GOAD GNOME Object Activation Directory
GOS Grade Of Service
GOSIP Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile
.GOV Governmental (Domain Name) [Internet]
GP Gas Plasma + General Purpose
GPF General Protection Fault
GPI Graphics Programming Interface
GPIB General Purpose Information/Interface Bus
GPIO General Purpose Input/Output
GPL General Public License
GPR General Purpose Register [IBM]
GPRC Glass Passivated Rectifier Chip
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GPS Global Positioning Satellite/System +
Global Product Specification
GPSS * General Purpose Systems Simulator (language)
GPU Graphics Processing Unit
GRADD Graphics Adapter Device Driver [IBM]
GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation + Graphics Engine
GREP Global Regular Expression Print
.GRF Graph (file name extension)
.GRP Group (file name extension)
GS Group Separator
GSI General Server Interface
GSM Global Shared Memory +
Global System for Mobile-Communications (network)
GSNW Gateway Service for NetWare [Microsoft]
GSP Generic Server Passer + Global Service Provider
GSR Gigabit Switch Router
GSTN General Switched Telephone Network
GTE General Telephone Electronics (corporation)
GTF Generalized Timing Format
GTL Gunning Transceiver Logic
GTO Guide To Operations [IBM]
GTP * Geometry Theorem Prover
GTS Generic Traffic Shaping [Cisco]
GUI Graphical User Interface
GUID Globally Unique Identifier +
Global Universal Identifier
GVT Global Virtual Time
GWES Graphic, Windowing and Event Subsystem
.gz Compressed file (compressed filename extension -
using GNU gzip compression/decompression program)

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.H Header (file name extension) [C]
HACMP High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing [IBM]
HAL Hard Array Logic + Hardware Abstraction Layer +
House-Programmed Array Logic
HAL * Heuristically Programmed Algorithmic (computer)
[from 1968 movie "2001: A Space Odyssey"]
HAP Host Access Protocol
HARP-MRI Harmonic Phase MRI
HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Priority (System)
HBA Host Bus Adapter
HCL Hardware Compatibility List
HCSS High Capacity Storage System
HCU Home Computer User
HD Hard Disk + High Density
HDA Head Disk Assembly
HDC High Dependability Computing [Carnegie Mellon]
HDCD High Definition Compatible Digital
HDCP High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection
HDD Hard Disk Drive
HDF Hierarchical Data Format [NCSA]
HDI Head to Disk Interference
HDL Hardware Description Language
HDLC High-Level Data Link Control
HDM Hardware Device Module
HDMI High-Definition Multimedia Interface
HDML Handheld Device Markup Language
HDR Header + High Data Rate
.HDR Header Data (file name extension)
HDSC High Density Signal Carrier [DEC]
HDSS Holographic Data Storage System
HDT Host Digital Terminal
HDTV High Definition Television
HDVD High Definition Volumetric Display
HDW Hardware
HDX Half Duplex
HEOS High Earth Orbiting Satellite
HERC Hercules
HEX Hexadecimal
HFC Hybrid Fiber-Coaxial
HFS Hierarchical File System [Macintosh]
HFT High Function Terminal [IBM]
HGA Hercules Graphics Adapter
HGCP Hercules Graphics Card Plus
HGP Human Genome Project
HH Hour
HID Human Interface Device
HIDS Host-Based Intrusion Detection System
HIF Hyper-G Interchange Format
HIFD High-Density Floppy Disk
HIL Human Interface Link [HP]
HIMEM High Memory
HIPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HLA High Level Architecture
HLCO High Low Close Open
HLL High Level Language
HLLAPI High Level Language Application Programming

.HLP Help (file name extension)
HLQ High Level Qualifier
HLS Hue, Luminance, Saturation (color model)
HLT Halt
HMA High Memory Area [Microsoft] +
Hub Management Architecture
HMD Head Mounted Display
HMI Human-Machine Interface
HMM Hidden Markov Model
HMMP Hyper-Media Management Protocol
HMOS High Density Metal Oxide Semiconductor +
High Speed Metal Oxide Semiconductor
HMP Host Monitoring Protocol
HOL High Order Logic
HOTT Hot Off The Tree (electronic newsletter)
HOV High Occupancy Vehicle
HP Hewlett-Packard (Company)
HPC Handheld Personal Computer
HPCC High Performance Computing and Communications
HPDJ Hewlett-Packard Desk Jet
HPFS High-Performance File System
HPG Hewlett-Packard Graphics
HPGL Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language
HPIB Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus
HPLJ Hewlett-Packard Laser Jet
HPOM Home Page Objects Model [Microsoft]
HPPA Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture
HPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HPR High Performance Routing [IBM]
HPSB High Performance Serial Bus
HPTL High Performance Technical Computing
HPUX Hewlett-Packard Unix
HPW High Performance Workstation [Sun]
.HQX BinHex (file name extension) [Macintosh]
HRIS Human Resource Information System
HRG High Resolution Graphics
HRMS Human Resource Management System
HRTF Head Related Transfer Function
HS High Speed
HSB Hue, Saturation, Brightness (color model)
HSC Hierarchical Storage Controller + High Speed

HSDPA High Speed Download Packet Access
HSI Hue, Saturation, Intensity
HSM Hierarchical Storage Management
HSP High Speed Printer/Processor
HSSI High Speed Serial Interface
HST High Speed Technology [U.S. Robotics]
.HST History + Host (file name extensions)
HSV Hue Saturation Value
HTL Human In The Loop
HTML HyperText Markup Language
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol
HTTP-NG HTTP Next Generation
HTTPS HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure
HUD Heads Up Display
HUT Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope
H/V Horizontal/Vertical
HVD Holographic Versatile Disc
HVP Horizontal & Vertical Position
H/W Hardware
HWCP Hardware Code Page
HWD Height-Width-Depth
HWDM Hyperfine Wave Division Multiplexing
.HYP Hyphenation (file name extension)
HYTELNET Hypertext-browser for Telnet Accessible Sites
Hz Hertz
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IA Intel Architecture [Intel]
IAB Internet Architecture Board
IAC Inter-Application Communication [Macintosh]
IAD Integrated Access Device
IAEC International Address Element Code
IAG Instruction Address Generation
IAK Internet Access Kit [IBM]
IAL * International Algorithmic Language
(ALGOL was first called IAL)
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
IAP Internet Access Provider
IAS Internet Access Server
IAT Import Address Table
IAUP Internet User Account Provider
IBC Instrument Bus Computer
iBCS Intel Binary Compatibility Specification
IBIP Information Based Indicia Program [U.S. Postal

IBL Inbound Links [Google]
IBM International Business Machines (Corporation)
IBM-GL IBM Graphics Language
IC Input Circuit + Integrated Circuit + Interrupt

ICA Intelligent Console Architecture +
Intra-application Communications Area
ICANN International Corporation for Assigned Names and

ICAP Internet Calendar Access Protocol [Lotus]
ICAS Intel Communicating Applications Specifications
ICB Internet Citizen's Band
ICCP Institute for the Certification of
Computing Professionals
ICD International Code Designator
ICE In-Circuit Emulator [Intel] +
Integrated Computing Environment [Langley

Research] +
Internal Compiler Error
ICES Interference-Causing Equipment Standard
ICF Internet Connection Firewall [Microsoft]
ICI Image Component Information + Inter-CPU Interrupts
ICL Interface Clear
ICLID Incoming-Call Line Identification
ICM Image Color Matching [Kodak] + Incoming Message
.ICM Image Color Management (file name extension)
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol [Novell]
.ICO Icon (file name extension)
ICOMP (iCOMP)Intel Comparative Microprocessor
Performance [Intel]
ICP Image Coprocessor + Integrated Channel Processor
ICQ I Seek You (messaging program0
ICR Intelligent Character Recognition
ICS Internet Connection Sharing [Microsoft] +
Intuitive Command Structure
ICSAPI Internet Connection Services API
ICU Instruction-Cache Unit +
Intel Configuration Utility [Microsoft] +
ISA Configuration Utility
ID Identification + Identifier
IDA Integrated Digital Access + Intelligent Disk Array

Intelligent Drive Array
IDAPI Integrated Database Application Programming

IDC Integrated Database/Desktop Connector +
Internet Database Connector [Microsoft] +
Internet Data Center
IDDE Integrated Development & Debugging Environment

IDE Imbedded Drive Electronics +
Integrated Development Environment [Borland] +
Integrated Device/Drive Electronics +
Intelligent Drive Electronics +
Interactive Design and Engineering +
Interface Design Enhancement
IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm
IDEN Integrated Data Enhanced Network
IDF Intermediate Distribution Frame
IDI Initial Domain Identifier
IDIV Integer Divide
IDL Interactive Data Language +
Interface Definition Language
IDM Integrated Document Management
IDMS Integrated Data Base Management System
IDNX Integrated Digital Network Exchange [IBM]
IDP Integrated Data Processing
IDR Intelligent Document Recognition
IDS Intrusion Detection System
IDT Interface Design Tool + Interrupt Descriptor Table
.IDX Index (file name extension)
IE Internet Explorer [Microsoft]
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEF Information Engineering Facility
IEMSI Interactive Electronic Mail Standard
IEN Internet Engineering Notes
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IESG Internet Engineering Steering Group
I/F Interface
IFC Internet Foundation Classes
IFD Image File Directory
IFF Interchangeable File Format [Amiga]
IFG Incoming Fax Gateway
IFP Instruction Fetch Pipeline
IFS Installable/Integated File System
IFSM Information Systems Management
IGA Integrated Graphics Array
IGC Integrated Graphics Controller
IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Standard
IGFET Insulated-Gate Field Effect Transistor
IGMP Internet Group Management/Multicast Protocol
IGP Interior Gateway Protocol
IGRP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol [Cisco]
IGS Internet Go Server
IHD Integrated Help Desk [IBM]
IHV Independent Hardware Vendor
IIF Immediate Interface
III Interstate Identification Index [NCIC]
IIOP Internet Inter-ORB Protocol
IIR Immediate Impulse Response
IIS Internet Information Server/Services [Microsoft]
IITF Information Infrastructure Task Force
IKE Internet Key Exchange
IKMP Internet Key Management Protocol
IKP Internet Keyed Payments [IBM]
ILA Image Light Amplifier
ILE Integrated Language Environment [IBM]
ILEC Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier
ILP Instruction-Level Parallelism
ILS International Language Support
IM Instant Messenger
IMAC Internet Macintosh [Apple]
IMACS Image Management and Communication System
IMAP Interactive Mail Access Protocol +
Internet Message Access Protocol
IMAX Maximum Image
IMDB In-Memory Database
IMDS Image Data Stream (format) [IBM]
IME Input Method Editor
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identifier
IMG Image
.IMG Image Data (file name extension)
IML Initial Microcode Load [IBM]
IMP Information/Interface Message Processor
IMPA Intelligent Multi-Port Adapter [DCA]
IMPI Interoperable Message Passing Interface
IMPP Internet Messaging and Presence Protocol
IMR Internet Monthly Report
IMS Information Management System +
Intermediate Maintenance Standards
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identifier
IMSP Internet Message Support Protocol
IMTC International Multimedia Teleconferencing

IMTV Interactive Multimedia Television
IMUL Integer Multiply
IMUX Inverse Multiplexer
IN Input
INC Increment
.IND Index (file name extension)
.INF Information (file name extension)
.INFO Information Services (Domain Name) [Internet]
INFS Internet Network File System
.INI Initialize (file name extension)
INIT Initialization + Initialize
INM Integrated Network Management
INND Internet News Daemon
INS Input String + Integrated Network Server
INT Integer + Internal + Interrupt +
.INT International Organization (Domain name)

INTA Interrupt Acknowledge
INTEL Integrated Electronics (company)
INTERNIC (InterNIC)Internet Network Information Center
INTO Interrupt if Overflow occurs
I2O Intelligent Input/Output
I/O Input/Output
IOC Inter-Office Channel
IOCC Input/Output Channel Converter +
Input/Output Controller Chip
IOCS Input/Output Control System
IOCTL Input/Output Control
IODE Integrated Development and Debugging
Environment [Symantec]
IOF Infrared Optical Film
IOP Input/Output Processor
IOPL Input/Output Privilege Level
IOR Interoperable Object Reference
IOS Internet Operating System
IOSGA Input/Output Support Gate Array
IP Instruction Pointer + Intellectual Property +
Internet Protocol
IPBF Installed Peripheral Base Flexibility
IPC Instructions Per Clock + Interprocess

IPCMOS Interlocked Pipeline CMOS [IBM]
IPCP Internet Protocol Control Protocol
IPCS Integrated PC Server
IPDC Internet Protocol Device Control
IPDS IBM Personal Dictation System [IBM] +
Intelligent Printer Data Stream [IBM]
IPF Invalid Page Format
IPFC Information Presentation Facility Compiler [IBM]
IPI Intelligent Peripheral Interface
IPL Initial Program Load/Loader +
Ion Projection Lithography
IPL * Information Programming Language
IPM Images Per Minute + Interpersonal Message
IPMI Intelligent Platform Management Interface
IPNG Internet Protocol, next generation
IPP Integrated Performance Primitives [Intel] +
Internet Printing Protocol
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
IPSE Integrated Project Support Environment
IPSEC Internet Protocol Security
IPTC International Press Telecommunications Council
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange [Novell]
IQL Interactive Query Language
IR Infrared
IRC Internet Relay Chat
IRD Integrated Receiver/Descrambler
IRDA (IrDA)Infrared Data Association
IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System
IRET Interrupt Return
IRF Intermediate Routing Function +
Inheritance Rights Filter [Novell]
IRL Interactive Reader Language + Inter-Repeater Link
IRLAP Infrared Link Access Protocol
IRLED Infrared Light Emitting Diode
IRM Information Resource Management + Inherent Rights

IRP I/O Request Packet
IRQ Interrupt Request
IRQL Interrupt Request Level
IRTF Internet Research Task Force
IRX Information Retrieval Experiment
IS Information System + Interrupt Status
ISA Industry Standard Architecture (bus) [IBM] +
Instruction-Set Architecture
ISAKMP Internet Security Association and Key Management

ISAM Indexed Sequential-Access Management/Method
ISAPI Internet Server API [Microsoft]
ISBN International Standard Book Number
ISC Instruction Set Computer + Inter-Systems
Communication [IBM]
ISD Image Section Descriptor +
Instructional Systems Design
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISH Information Super Highway
ISI Internally Specified Index
ISIS Integrated Systems and Information Services
ISKM Internet Starter Kit for the Macintosh
ISL Interactive System Language +
Inter Switch Link [Cisco]
ISM Integrated Services Model [IETF] +
Internet Service Manager [Microsoft]
ISMF Interactive Storage Management Facility
ISOC Internet Society
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISP Internet Service Provider + Interrupt Stack

Pointer +
Interrupt Status Port
ISPF Interactive System Programming Facility
ISR Information Storage and Retrieval +
Interrupt Service Routine +
Interrupt Status Register
ISRC International Standard Recording Code
ISS Internet Sharing Software
ISSN International Standard Serial Number
ISV Independent Software Vendor
IT Information Technology
ITB Information Technology Branch + Intermediate Text

ITC International Typeface Corporation
ITE Information Technology Equipment
ITF Interactive Test Facility
ITIL Information Technology Infrastructure Library
ITN Identification Tasking and Networking
ITP Internet Transaction Processing
ITR Information Technology Research [NSF] +
Input Transaction Record + Internet Talk Radio
ITSM Information Technology Service Management
ITU International Telecommunications Union
ITUG International Telecommunications User Group
ITU-TIES ITU-Telecom Information Exchange Services
ITU-TSS ITU-Telecommunication Standards Section
ITV Interactive Television
ITX Intermediate Text Block
IU Integer Unit
IUAP Internet User Account Provider
IUS/ITB Interchange Unit Separator/Intermediate

IVDS Integrated Voice and Data Systems
IVIS Interactive Video Information System
IVL Independent Vendor League + Intel Verification Lab
IVR Interactive Voice Recognition/Response
IVS Interactive Videodisk System
IVT Interrupt Vector Table
IV&V Independent Verification & Validation
I-WAY Information Highway
IXC Interexchange Carrier
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JA Jump Address + Jump if Above
JAD Joint Application Design/Development
JADE Java Addition to the Default System
JAE Jump if Above or Equal
JANET Joint Academic Network
JAR Java Archive (file format)
JAXM Java API for XML Messaging
JBE Jump if Below or Equal
JC Jump if Carry set
JCA Java Cryptography Architecture
JCE Java Cryptography Extension
JCL Job Control Language
JDBC Java Database Connectivity
JDF Job Description format
JDK Java Development Kit
JDSL Java Data Structures Library
JE Jump if Equal
JEDEC Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council
JEIDA Japanese Electronics Industry Development

JEPI Joint Electronic Payment Initiative
JES Job Entry System
JFC Java Foundation Classes
JFET Junction Field Effect Transistor
JFIF JPEG File Interchange Format
JFS Journaled File System [IBM]
JG Jump if Greater
JGE Jump if Greater or Equal
JIPS JANET Internet Protocol Service
JIT Just-In-Time (compiler)
JL Jump if Less
JLE Jump if Less than or Equal to
JLIP Joint Level Interface Protocol
JMAPI Java Management Application Program Interface
JMF Java Media Framework [Sun]
JMI Java Metadata Interface
JMP Jump
JMS Java Message Service
JMX Java Management Extensions
JNA Jump if Not Above
JNAE Jump if Not Above or Equal
JNB Jump if Not Below
JNBE Jump if Not Below or Equal
JNG Jump if Not Greater
JNGE Jump if Not Greater or Equal
JNI Java Native Interface
.JNK Junk (file name extension)
JNLE Jump if Not Less or Equal
JNO Jump if No Overflow
JNP Jump if No Parity
JNS Jump if No Sign
JOE Java Objects Everywhere
JOHNNIAC* John Neumann Integrator and
Automatic Computer [Rand Corp.]
JOSS * Johnniac Open Shop System [Rand Corp.]
JOVIAL Jules' Own Version of the International
Algorithmic Language
JPE Jump if Parity Even
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JPNF Join-Projection Normal Form
JPO Jump if Parity Odd
JRE Java Runtime Environment
JS Jump if Sign
JSP Java Server Page
JSSE Java Secure Socket Extension
JTAG Joint Test Action Group [IEEE]
JTAPI Java Telephony Application Programming Interface
JZ Jump if Zero
JNZ Jump if Not Zero
JSS Java-Script Style Sheet
JUGHEAD Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy
Excavation and Display [Internet]
JVM Java Virtual Machine
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K-12 Kindergarten through 12th Grade [US Education

KAM Keep Alive Memory
Kb Kilobit
KB Keyboard + Kilobyte (1,024 bytes)
KBD Keyboard (also KEYB)
KBD$ Keyboard [OS/2]
KBE Knowledge Based Engineering
Kbps Kilobits Per Second
KBps Kilobytes Per Second
KDE K Desktop Environment
KDT Key Definition Table
KEFIR Key Findings Reporter [GTE]
KEYBBE Foreign language KEYBoard program - Belgium
KEYBBR Foreign language KEYBoard program - Brazil
KEYBCF Foreign language KEYBoard program -

KEYBCZ Foreign language KEYBoard program - Czechoslovakia
KEYBDK Foreign language KEYBoard program - Denmark
KEYBFR Foreign language KEYBoard program - France
KEYBGR Foreign language KEYBoard program - Germany
KEYBHU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Hungary
KEYBIT Foreign language KEYBoard program - Italy
KEYBLA Foreign language KEYBoard program - Latin America
KEYBNL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Netherlands
KEYBNO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Norway
KEYBPL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Poland
KEYBPO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Portugal
KEYBSF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-French
KEYBSG Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-German
KEYBSL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Czechoslovakia
KEYBSP Foreign language KEYBoard program - Spain
KEYBSU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Finland
KEYBSV Foreign language KEYBoard program - Sweden
KEYBUK Foreign language KEYBoard program - United Kingdom
KEYBUS Foreign language KEYBoard program - United States
KEYBYU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Yugoslavia
KHz Kilohertz
KIF Knowledge Interchange Format
KIPS Kodak Internet Print Service [Kodak]
KIS Knowbot Information Service [Internet]
KPI Kernel Programming Interface
KQML Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language
KRS Knowledge Retrieval System
KSDS Keyed Sequential Data Set
KSH Korn Shell (program) [Unix]
KSPH Keystrokes Per Hour
KSR Keyboard Send Receive
KVM Keyboard, Video, Mouse (switch) +
Kilobyte Virtual Machine
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L2F Layer Two Forwarding [Cisco]
L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol
LADDR Layered Device Driver Architecture [Microsoft]
LALL Longest Allowed Lobe Length
LAN Local Area Network
LANACS Local Area Network Asynchronous Connection Server
LANDP LAN Distributed Platform
LANE Local Area Network Emulation
LANG Language
LAP Linux Application Platform
LAPB Link Access Procedure Balanced (protocol)
LAPD Link Access Procedure on the D-Channel (protocol)
LAPM Link Access Procedure for Modems
LAR Load Access Rights
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of

LASTport Local Area Storage Transport (protocol) [DEC]
LAT Local Access Terminal +
Local Area Transport [DEC]
LATA Local Access and Transport Area
LAVC Local Area VAX Cluster
LAWN Local Area Wireless Network
LB Left Button (of 2 or 3 button Mouse)
LBA Logical Block Addressing
LBL Label
LBR Librarian
.LBR Library (file name extension)
LBT Listen Before Talk
LBX Local Bus Accelerator
LCA Lotus Communications Architecture [Lotus]
LCC Leadless Chip Carrier
LCCM LAN Client Control Manager [IBM]
LCD Liquid Crystal Display + Lowest Common Denominator
LCF Low Cost Fiber
LCK Library Construction Kit [Microsoft FoxPro]
LCOS (LCoS) Liquid Crystal on Silicon
LCP Link Control Protocol
LCR Least Cost Routing + Line Control Register
LCS Link Connection Subsystem
LCSD Laminate Chip Signal Diode
LCU Last Cluster Used
LDA Logical Device Address
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol [IBM]
LDC Lotus Development Corporation
LDDS Long Distance Discount Services (company)
LDM Logical Disk Manager + Long Distance Modem
LDP Label Distribution Protocol
LDT Local Descriptor Table
LE Less or Equal
LEA Load Effective Address
LEAD Live Early Adoption and Demonstration [W3C]
LEAF Law Enforcement Access Field
LEC Local Area Network Emulation Client +
Local Exchange Carrier
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEL Link, Embed and Launch-to-edit [Lotus]
LEM Language Extension Module
LEN Low Entry Networking
LEO Low Earth Orbit
LEP Light-Emitting Polymers
LES Local Area Network Emulation Server
.LET Letter (file name extension)
LEX Lexicon
LF Line Feed
L2F Layer 2 Forwarding (protocol) [Cisco]
LFAP Lightweight Flow Admission Protocol
LFE Low Frequency Effects
LFI Last File Indicator
LFM Log File Monitor
LFN Long File Name
LFT Low Function Terminal [IBM]
LFU Least Frequently Used
LGA Leadless Grid Array
LGDT Load Global Descriptor Table
LGPL Lesser General Public License
LIAS Library Information Access System
.LIB Library (file name extension)
LIC Line Interface Coupler [IBM]
LICS Lotus International Character Set [LDC]
LIDT Load Interrupt Descriptor Table
LIEP Large Internet Exchange Packet [Novell]
LIF Low Insertion Force
LIFO Last In, First Out
LILO Last In, Last Out
LIM Lotus/Intel/Microsoft
LIMA Lotus/Intel/Microsoft/AST
LIMDO Light Intensity Modulation Direct Overwrite
LIMM Light Intensity Modulation Method
LIMS Library Information Management System
LINUX (Operating system named after Linus Torvalds)
LIP Large Internet Packet
LIPO (LiPo) Lithium Polymer (battery)
LIPS Lightweight Internet Person Schema +
Logical Inferences Per Second
LISP List Processing (Language)(See HLL)
LISTSERV List Server [Internet]
LIU LAN Interface Unit
LIW Long Instruction Word
LLC Logical Link Control
LLDT Load Local Descriptor Table
LLF Low Level Format
LMB Left Mouse Button
LMBCS Lotus Multi-Byte Character Set [Lotus]
LMD Last Modification Date
LMDS Local Multipoint Distribution Service
LMI Link/Local Management Interface
LMOS Leave Mail On Server
LMR Land Mobile Radio
LMS Lotus Messaging Switch [Lotus]
LMSW Load Machine Status Word
LMU LAN Management Utilities [IBM] +
LAN Manager for Unix
LN Load Number + Logarithm (Natural)
LNA Local Network Administrator
LN:DI Lotus Notes:Document Imaging
LNK Link
LOB Line of Business
LOC Lines Of Code + Loop On-Line Control
LOCIS Library of Congress Information System
LOD Letter Of Destruction + Level Of Detail
LODSB Load String Byte
LOG Logarithm (Base 10)
LOGO (Programming Language)(See HLL)
LON Local Operating Network
LOOPE Loop while Equal
LOOPNE Loop while Not Equal
LOOPNZ Loop while Not Zero
LOOPZ Loop while Zero
LORE Line Oriented Editor
LPAR Logic Programming and Automated Reasoning
LPC Local Procedure Call
LPD Line Printer Daemon (protocol) [Berkley]
LPDU Logical Protocol Data Unit
LPI Lines Per Inch
LPL Lotus Programming Language [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
LPM Lines Per Minute
LPN Logical Page Number
LPR Line Printer + Line Printer Remote
LPS Low-Power Schottky
LPT Line Printer Terminal
LPT1 First Parallel Printer Port
LPT2 Second Parallel Printer Port
LPT3 Third Parallel Printer Port
LQ Letter Quality
LQM Link Quality Monitoring (protocol)
LR Link Register
LRC Local Register Cache +
Longitudinal Redundancy Check
LRL Least Recently Loaded
LRM Language Reference Manual + Least Recently-Used

.LRS Language Resource (file name extension)

LRU Least Recently Used
LSA LAN and SCSI Adapter [IBM] + Line Sharing Adapter

Local Security Authority [Microsoft]
LSAPI License Services Application Program Interface
LSASS Local Security Authority Subsystem Service

LSB Least Significant Bit
LSC Least Significant Character
LSD Least Significant Digit
LSI Large Scale Integration
LSL Link Support Layer + Load Segment Limit
LSP Layered Service Provider [Spybot]
LSPR Logistics System Program Review
LST List
.LST List (file name extension)
LTO Linear Tape Open
L2TP Layer 2 Transport/Tunneling Protocol
LTPS Low-Temperature Polysilicon
LTR Left-To-Right + Letter + Load Task Register
LU Logical Unit (Also LUN)
LUA Logical Unit Application (interface)
LUI Local User Input
LUIS Library User Information Service
LUN Logical Unit Number
LUT Lookup Table
LV Logical Volume [IBM]
LVDS Low-Voltage Differential Signaling
LVM Logical Volume Management [IBM]
LW Lazy Write
.LYR Lyrics (music file name extension)
LZW Lempel-Ziv-Welch (algorithm)
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mA Milliampere
MAC Macintosh (Apple Macintosh Computer) +
Mandatory/Media/Medium Access Control +
Message Authentication Code
MAC * Multiple Access Computers
.MAC MacPaint (file name extension) +
Macro (file name extension)
MACH Multilayer Actuator Head [Epson]
MADE Manufacturing and Automated Design Engineering
MADYMO Mathematical Dynamic Modeling [TNO]
MAE Merit Access Exchange + Metropolitan Area Ethernet
MAGMA Minimal Architecture for Generalized Markup

MAH (mAh)Milliampere-Hour
MAI Multiple Applications Interface
.MAI Mail (file name extension)
MAJC Microprocessor Architecture for Java Computing

MALWARE Malicious Software
MAN Manual [Unix] + Metropolitan Area Network
MANIAC * Mathematical Analyzer Numerical
Integrator and Computer
MANPAGE Manual Page [Unix]
MAP Maintenance Analysis Procedures +
Manufacturing Automation Protocol +
Memory Allocation Map
.MAP Linker Map (file name extension)
MAPI Mail/Messaging Applications Programming
Interface [Microsoft]
MAPICS Manufacturing, Accounting and Production
Information Control System [IBM]
MARC Machine Readable Cataloging +
Multi-Technology Automated Reader Card
MARVEL Machine-Assisted Realization of the Virtual
Electronic Library [Library of Congress]
MASM Macro Assembler [Microsoft]
MASS Maximum Availability and Support
Subsystem [Parallan]
MAT Maintenance Access Terminal
MAU Media Access/Adapter Unit + Multistation Access

MAVDM Multiple Application VDM
MAX Maximum
MB Megabyte (1,024 kilobytes) +
Middle Button (of 3 button Mouse)
MBASIC Microsoft BASIC [Microsoft]
MBCS Multi-Byte Character Set [IBM]
MBONE Multicast Backbone [Internet]
MBps Megabytes Per Second
Mbps Megabits Per Second
MBR Master Boot Record
MBX Mailbox
MCA Micro Channel Adapter/Architecture [IBM]
MCAD Mechanical Computer Aided Design
MCB Memory Control Block
MCF Meta Content Framework +
Microsoft Connector Framework [Microsoft]
MCGA Multicolor Graphics Array
MCH Memory Controller Hub [Intel]
MCI MCI Communications Corp. (name from initials of
original company - Microwave Communications, Inc.)

Media Control Interface [Microsoft]
MCL Microsoft Compatibility Labs [Microsoft]
MCM Multi-Chip Module
MCNE Master Certified Novell Engineer [Novell]
MC-PGA Metallized Ceramic - Pin Grid Array
MCPS Microsoft Certified Product Specialist [Microsoft]
MC-QFP Metallized Ceramic - Quad Flat Pack
MCR Modem Control Register
MCSD Microsoft Certified Systems Developer [Microsoft]
MCSE Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer [Microsoft]
MCU Microcontroller Unit + Multi-Chip Unit [DEC] +
Multipoint Control Unit
MD Make Directory + Mini Disk [Sony] + Monochrome

MDA Mail Delivery Agent + Model Drive Architecture +
Monochrome Display Adapter + Multidimensional

MDDBMS Multidimensional Data Base Management System
.MDF Menu Definition File (file name extension)
MDI Memory Display Interface +
Multiple Document Interface
MDIC Manchester Decoder and Interface Chip [AT&T]
MDK Multimedia Developers Kit [Microsoft]
MDLP Mobile Data Link Protocol
MDR Metadata Repository + Minimum Design Requirement
MDX Multi-Dimensional Expressions
MDY Month Day Year
.ME Opening Information (file name extension) (As in

MEB Memory Expansion Board
MED Minimum Expected Delay
MEG Megabyte
MEM Memory
MEMS Micro-Electro-Mechanical System
.MEN Menu (file name extension)
MERCI Multimedia European Research Conferencing

MES Manufacturing Execution System
MESI Modified, Exclusive, Shared and Invalid (protocol)
MET Memory Enhancement Technology [Hewlett-Packard]
.MET Metafile (file name extension)
MFC Microsoft Foundation Class [Microsoft]
MFFS Microsoft Flash File System [Microsoft]
MFI Multifunction Interpreter
MFIOP Multifunction I/O Processor
MFLOPS Million Floating Point Operations Per Second
MFM Modified Frequency Modulation
MFP Multi-Function Peripheral/Printer/Product
MFPI Multifunction Peripheral Interface
MFS Macintosh File System [Macintosh] +
Magnetic Tape Field Search + Memory File System
Modified Filing System [Revelation Technologies]
MFT Master File Table +
Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks
MGA Monochrome Graphics Adapter
MGCP Media Gateway Control Protocol
MGE Modular GIS Environment
MGET Multiple Get [Unix]
MGML Minimal Generalized Markup Language
MGR Manager
MHS Message Handling Service + Message Handling System
MHz Megahertz
MI Management Interface
MIB Management Information Base
MIC Message Integrity Check
MICR Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
MICRO One-millionth
MICS Macro Interpretive Commands
MID Mobile Information Device
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIDP Mobile Information Device Profile
MIF Management Information Format
.MIF Management Information Files (file name extension)
MIG Metal In Gap
MII Microsoft/IBM/Intel
MIL Machine Interface Layer [Go Corporation] +
.MIL Military (Domain name) [Internet]
MIM Map Image Metafile + Metal-Insulator-Metal

MIMD Multiple Instruction Multiple Data Stream

MIME Multimedia Internet Message Extensions +
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
MI/MIC Mode Indicate/Mode Indicate Common
MIMO Multiple Input, Multiple Output
MIN Minimum + Mobile Identification Number
MIND Microsoft Internet Developer [Microsoft]
MINUET Minnesota Internet Users Essential Tools

MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
MIR Music Information Retrieval
MIRAM Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory
MIS Management Information System +
Multimedia Information Sources [Internet]
MISC Miscellaneous
MIX Member Information Exchange
.MIX Microsoft Picture It! (format)
MKDIR Make Directory
ML Machine Language + Meta Language
MLAPI Multilingual Application Programming Interface
MLC Multilayer Ceramic +
Multilevel Cell (program) [Internet]
MLE Multi-Line Editor
MLID Multi-Link Interface Driver
MLM Mailing List Manager [Internet]
MLP Meridian Lossless Packing
MLPPP Multilink PPP
MM Minutes + Month
MMA Microcomputer Managers Association
MMC Matched Memory Cycle + Microcomputer Marketing

Council +
Microsoft Management Console [Microsoft] +
Multi Media Card
MMCD MultiMedia Compact Disk
MMCX Multimedia Communication Exchange [Lucent

MMDS Multi-channel Multipoint Distribution Service
MMF Multi Mode Fiber (cable)
MMI Man-Machine Interface
MMIS Materials Manager Information System
MMPM Multi Media Presentation Manager
MMS Multimedia Messaging Service
MMU Memory Management Unit
MMVF Multimedia Video File [NEC]
MMX Matrix Manipulation Extensions [Intel] +
Multimedia Extensions
MNOS Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductor
MNP Microcom Networking Protocol [Microcom]
.MNU Menu (fine name extension)
MO Magneto-Optical (disk drive)
MOB Memory-Order Buffer
MOBO Mother Board
MOD Module + Modulus
MODEM Modulator/Demodulator
MOHLL Machine Oriented High Level Language
MOLAP Multidimensional On-Line Analytical Processing
MOM Manufacturing Operations Management +
Message-Oriented Middleware +
Microsoft Office/Operations Manager [Microsoft]
MONET Multiwavelength Optical Networking
MONO Monaural
MOO MUD, Object Oriented [Internet]
MOP Maintenance Operations Protocol
MOPS Million Operations Per Second
MOS Magneto-Optic Storage + Mean Opinion Score +
Metal Oxide Semiconductor
MOSFET Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MOSPF Multicast Open Shortest Path First
MOTD Message Of The Day
MOV Metal Oxide Varistor + Move
MOVS Move String
MP Massively Parallel (processing) + Megapixel +
Multiple Processors
MP3 MPEG Audio Layer 3
.MPA Memo Pad Archive (file name extension) [Palm]
MPC Multimedia Personal Computer + Multipath Channel
MPCS Mission Planning and Control Station (Software)
MPE Multiple Programming Executive [HP]
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
MPI Message Passing Interface + Multiprecision Integer
MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching [Cisco]
MPM Message Passing Library [IBM]
MPMD Multiple Processor/Multiple Data
MPOA Multi-Protocol over Asynchronous-Transfer-Mode
MPP Massively Parallel Processing/Processors +
Message Posting Protocol + Message Processing

MPQP Multi-Protocol Quad Port [IBM]
MPR Multipart Repeater + Multi Protocol Router

MPS Multiprocessor Specification
MPTN Multi-Protocol Transport Network
MPTS Multi-Protocol Transport Services
MPU Microprocessor Unit
MQI Messaging and Queuing Interface [IBM]
MR Magneto Resistive + Modem Ready
MRAM Magnetic Random Access Memory
MRCF Microsoft Realtime Compression Format
MRCI Microsoft Realtime Compression Interface
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRM Most Recently-Used Master
MRO Multi-Region Operation
MRP Manufacturing Resources Planning +
Materials Requirement Planning
MRPL Main Ring Path Length
MRS Media Recognition System
MRT Mean Repair Time
MRU Maximum Receive Unit + Most Recently Used
MS Memory System + Message Store + Microsecond +
Microsoft Corporation + Millisecond
MSACM Microsoft Audio Compression Manager [Microsoft]
MSAU Multi-Station Access Unit
MSAV Microsoft Anti Virus [Microsoft]
MSB Most Significant Bit
MSBF Mean Swaps Between Failures
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MSCDEX Microsoft Compact Disc Extensions [Microsoft]
MSCE Microsoft Certified Software Engineer [Microsoft]
MSCHAP Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol [Microsoft]
MSCS Microsoft Cluster Server [Microsoft]
MSD Mass Storage Device + Most Significant Digit +
Microsoft System Diagnostics [Microsoft]
MSDE Microsoft Data Engine [Microsoft1)
MSDN Microsoft Developer Network [Microsoft]
MS-DOS Microsoft - Disk Operating System [Microsoft]
MSDR Multiplexed Streaming Data Request
MSDS Microsoft Developer Support [Microsoft]
MSFR Minimum Security Function Requirements [IBM]
MSG Message
.MSG Program Message (file name extension)
MSGINA Microsoft Graphical Identification and

MSI Medium Scale Integration
MSIE Microsoft Internet Explorer [Microsoft]
MSIMN Microsoft Internet Mail and News [Microsoft]
MSL Map Specification Library + Mirrored Server Link
MSLU Microsoft Layer for Unicode [Microsoft]
MSMQ Microsoft Message Queue-Server [Microsoft]
MSN Microsoft Network [Microsoft]
MSO Multiple Service/Systems Operator
.MSP Microsoft Paint (file name extension) [Microsoft]
MSR Microsoft Reserved Partition [Microsoft]
MSRP Manufacturer Suggested Retail Price
MSS Mass Storage System +
Multiprotocol Switched Services [IBM]
MSTS Microsoft Terminal Server [Microsoft]
MSW Machine Status Word
MSXML Microsoft XML [Microsoft]
MTA Mail Transport Agent + Message Transfer Agent +
Multimedia Terminal Adapter + Multiple Terminal Access
MTBB Mean Time Between Breakdowns
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MTBJ Mean Time Between Jams
MTF Microsoft Tape Format [Microsoft] +
Modulation Transfer Function
MTH Memory Translator Hub
MTOM Message Transformation Optimization Mechanism
MTRP Maximum Transfer Rate Performance
MTS Message Transfer Service/System +
Microsoft Transaction Server [Microsoft] +
Multichannel Television Sound
MTSO Mobile Telephone Switching Office
MTST Magnetic Tape Selectric Typewriter [IBM]
MTT Multi-Transaction Timer
MTTD Mean Time To Diagnose
MTTF Mean Time To Failure
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
MTU Maximum Transfer/Transmission Unit
MUA Mail User Agent
MUD Multi-User Dialogue/Dimension/Domain/Dungeon

MUG Multiuser Game
MUL Multiply
MULTICS Multiplexed Information and Computing Service
MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital Utility
Multi-Programming System (Programming Language)
MUSE Multi-User Shared Environment
.MUSEUM Museums (Domain Name) [Internet]
MUSIC Multiparty Multimedia Session Control
MUT Monitor Under Test
MUX Multiplexer
mV Millivolt
MVB Multimedia Viewer Book
MVC Multimedia Viewer Compiler
MVD Multivalued Dependencies
MVDM Multiple Virtual DOS Machines
MVGA Monochrome Video Graphics Array
MVIP Multi-Vendor Integration Protocol
MVP Multimedia Video Processor
MVS Multiple Virtual Storage
MVT Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks
MX Mail Exchanger [Internet]
MXS Microsoft Exchange Server [Microsoft]
MZR Multiple Zone Recording
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NAC Network Adapter Card
NACD National Association of Computer Dealers
NACS National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors
NAE Not Above or Equal
NAK Negative Acknowledgment
NAKA Not Acknowledge
NAL Novell Application Launcher [Novell]
NAM Number Assignment Module
.NAME Names-Individuals (Domain Name) [Internet]
NAMPS Narrow-Band Analog Mobile Phone Service [Motorola]
NAND Not And
NANO One thousand-millionth
NANOMETER One billionith of a meter
NAP Network Access Point
NAPLPS North American Presentation Level Protocol
Syntax (graphics)
NAS Network Access Server + Network Application

Support [DEC] +
Network Attached Storage
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers
Automatic Quotation
NASI NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface [Novell]
NASIRC NASA Automated Systems Internet Response

NASKER NASA Ames Kernel (benchmark)
NAT Network Address Transformation/Translators
NAU Network Addressable Unit
NAV Navigator
NAVSTAR Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging
NAWS Negotiate About Window Size
NBE Not Below or Equal
NBI Nothing But Initials
NBMA Non-Broadcast Multi Access
NBS Narrowband Socket + National Bureau of Standards +
Numeric Backspace
NC Network Computer + No Carry + Numerical Control
NCA Network Communications Adapter +
Network Computing Architecture [Oracle]
NCC Network Control Center
NCD Network Computing Device
.NCF Netware Command File [Novell]
NCGA National Computer Graphics Association
NCIC National Crime Information Center
NCMT * Numerical Control for Machine Tools
NCOS Network Computer Operating System
NCP NetWare Core Protocol + Not Copy Protected +
Network Control Panel/Processor/Program/Protocol
NCR National Cash Register (Company)
NCSA National Center for Supercomputing Applications
NCSC National Computer Security Center
NCSI Network Communications Services
Interface [Network Products Corp.]
NDB Non-Directional Beacon
NDDK Network Device Development Kid [Microsoft]
NDEF Not to be Defined
NDIS Network Device/Driver Interface Specification
NDL Network Data Language
NDMP Network Data Management Protocol
NDN Non-Delivery Notice
NDP Numeric Data Processor
NDR Network Data Representation
NDRO Non-Destructive Read Out
NDS NetWare Directory Service [Novell]
.NDX Index (file name extension)
NEC Nippon Electric Company
NED NASA Extragalactic Database [NASA]
NEG Negative + Negate
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NEP Network Entry Point
NES National Education Supercomputer
NEST Novell Embedded Systems Technology [Novell]
.NET Networks (Domain Name) [Internet]
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System [IBM]
NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface [IBM]
NETMON Network Monitor
.NEW New Information (file name extension)
NEWS NetWare Early Warning System [Frye Computer] +
Network Extensible Window System
NEWS. Current events [USENET Newsgroup Category]
NEXT Near-End Crosstalk
NFF No Fault Found
NFS Network File System [Sun]
NG No Good
NGE Not Greater or Equal
NGI Next-Generation Internet
NHC National Hurricane Center
NHR National Handwriting Recognition
NHRP Next Hop Resolution Protocol
N/I Non-Interlaced
NIA Next Instruction Address
NIC Network Information Center [Internet] +
Network Interface Card +
Numeric Intensive Computing
NICAD Nickel-Cadmium
NICOLAS Network Information Center OnLine Aid System

NID New Interactive Display [NEC] + Next ID
NIDS Network Intrusion Detection System [Unisys]
NII National Information Infrastructure
NIM Network Installation Management [IBM]
NIMH (NiMH) Nickel-Metal Hydride
NIO Native Input/Output + New Input/Output
NIPS Network I/Os Per Second
NIR Network Information Retrieval
NIS Network Information Service [Unix]
N-ISDN Narrowband ISDN + National ISDN
NISO National Information Standards Organization
NISP Networked Information Services Project
NIST National Institute for Standards and Technology
NITC National Information Technology Center
NIU Network Interface Unit
NJE Network Job Entry (protocol) [IBM]
NL New Line
NLB Network Load Balancing [Microsoft]
NLE Not Less or Equal
NLM NetWare Loadable Module [Netware]
NLP Natural-Language Processing
NLQ Near Letter Quality
NLSFUNC National Language Support Function
NLV National Language Version [IBM]
NMI Non-Maskable Interrupt
NMM NetWare Management Map [NetWare]
NMOS Negative Channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
NMP Network Management Protocol [AT&T]
NMS Network Management System [Novell]
NN Network Node + No News [Internet]
NNI Network to Network Interface
NNM Network Node Manager
NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol [Internet]
NOC Network Operations Center
.NOM Individual with Personal Site (Domain Name)

NOP No Operation
NOR Not Or
NOS Network Operating System
NPA Network Printer Alliance + Numbering Plan Area
NPI Network Printer Interface
NPL Nonprocedural Language
NPN Negative Positive Negative (bipolar transistor)
NPS Novell Productivity Specialist [Novell]
NPT Non-Programmable Terminal
NPTN National Public Telecomputing Network
NPU Natural Processing Unit
NPX Numeric Processor Extension
NQS Network Queuing System [Cray]
N(r) Number Returned
NRC National Research Council (Canada)
NREN National Research and Education Network
NRM Network Resource Manager + Normal Response Mode
NRZ Not Return to Zero
NRZI Non Return to Zero Inverted
NS Nanosecond (one-billionth of a second) +
National Semiconductor (as in Ns16550 UART) +
Network Supervisor + Non Stop
NSAP Network Service Access Point
NSAPI Netscape Server API [Netscape]
NSA POLY National Security Agency Polygraph
NSERC National Sciences and Engineering Research Council
NSF National Science Foundation
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network
NSI NASA Science Internet
NSLOOKUP Name Server Lookup [Unix]
NSM Netscape Server Manager [Netscape]
NSP Native Signal Processing [Intel] + Network Service
NSSC NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer
NSTC National Science and Technology Council
NSTL National Software Testing Labs
NT New Technology [Microsoft]
NT-1 Network Terminator Type 1
NTAS NT Advanced Server [Microsoft]
NTF No Trouble Found
NTFS New Technology File System [Microsoft]
NTIA National Telecommunications and
Information Administration
NTIS National Technical Information Service
NTLDR New Technology Loaders [Microsoft]
NTP Network Time Protocol
NTRAS NT Remote Access Services [Microsoft]
NTSA NetWare Telephony Services Architecture [Novell]
NTSC National Television Standards Committee
NTU Network Termination Unit
NUI Network User Identification +
Network User Interface +
Notebook User Interface [Go Corporation]
NUL Null + (dummy device) + (no device)
NUMA Non-Uniform Memory Access
NV No Overflow
NVM Non-Volatile Memory
NVOD Near-Video On Demand
NVP Nominal Velocity of Propagation
NVRAM Non-Volatile Random Access Memory
NVT Network Virtual Terminal +
Novell Virtual Terminal [Novell]
NWS NetWare Web Server [Netware]
NYM Anonymous
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OAB One-to-All Broadcast
OAD Open Architecture Driver [Bernoulli]
OAG Official Airline Guide + Online Air Guide
OAI Open Applications Interface
OAS One-to-All Scatter
OBD On Board Diagnostics
OBEX Object Exchange [Borland]
OBJ Object
OC Optical Carrier
OCE Open Collaborative Environment [Apple]
OCF Objects Components Framework [Borland]
OCL Object Constaint Language + Operation Control

Language +
Operator Control Language
OCR Optical Character Recognition
OCS On-Card Sequencer
OCSP Online Certificate Status Protocol
OCX OLE Custom Control
ODA Open Document Architecture
ODAPI Open Database Application Programming
Interface [Borland]
ODBC Object-Oriented Database Connectivity +
Open Database Computing +
Open Data Base Connectivity [Microsoft]
ODBMS Object-Oriented Database Management System (also
see OODMS)
ODI Open Datalink Interface [Novell] +
Open Device Interconnect [NetWare]
ODIF Open Document Interchange Format
ODL Object Definition Language
ODM Object Data Manager [IBM] +
Optimized Distribution Model [Compaq]
ODMA Open Document Management API
ODP Open Distributed Processing
ODS Open Data Services [Microsoft] +
Operational Data Store
ODSI Open Directory Service Interface [Microsoft]
ODT Open Desktop
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OEP Operand Execution Pipeline
OF Overflow Flag
OFB Output Feedback (mode)
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OFMT Output Format for Numbers
OFS Object File System [Microsoft] + Output Field

OFX Open Financial Exchange
OGSA Open Grid Services Architecture
OGSI Open Grid Services Infrastructure
OH Off Hook
OHCI Open Host Controller Interface
OID Object Identifier
OIDL Object Interface Definition Language
OIS Office Information System
OLAP Online Analytical Processing
OLCP Online Complex Processing
.OLD Old version (file name extension)
OLE Object Linking and Embedding [Microsoft]
OLED Organic Light Emitting Diode
OLGA Online Guitar Archive
OLI Optical Line Interface [AT&T]
OLMC Output Logic Macrocell
OLSP Online Service Provider
OLTP Online Transaction Processing
OM Object Manager
OMA Object Management Architecture [Microsoft]
OME Open Messaging Environment (protocol)
OMF Object Module Format [Microsoft] +
Open Media Framework + Open Message Format
OMG Object Management Group
OMI Open Messaging Interface [Lotus]
OML Object Manipulation Language
OMR Optical Mark Recognition
ONC Open Network Computing [Sun]
ONDS Open Network Distribution Services [IBM]
ONE Open Network Environment [Netscape]
ONMS Open Network Management System
ONU Optical Network Unit
OOAD Object-Oriented Analysis and Design
OOB Out Of Band
OODB Object-Oriented Database
OODMS Object-Oriented Database Management System (also
see ODBMS)
OOL Object-Oriented Language
OOOS Object-Oriented Operating System
OOPL Object-Oriented Programming Language
OOPS Object Oriented Programming and Systems
OOS Object-Oriented Systems +
Off-line Operating Simulator
OOT Object-Oriented Technology
OOUI Object Oriented User Interface
OP Operation + Optical + Output
OPAC Online Public Access Catalog [Internet]
OPC Open Process Control + Organic/Optical

OPCODE Operational Code
OPD Operand
OPI Open Prepress Interface
OPM Operations Per Minute
OPS Open Profiling Standard + Oracle Parallel Server

OPT Open Protocol Technology
.OPT Options (file name extension)
OPUS Octal Program Updating System
OQL Object Query Language
ORACLE On-Line Inquiry and Report Generator (UNIX DB

ORB Object Request Broker [Microsoft]
ORDVAC * Ordnance Variable Automatic Computer
.ORG Non-Profit Organizations (Domain name) [Internet]
ORI Online Retrieval Interface
.ORI Original (file name extension)
ORL Optical Return Loss
OROM Optical Read-Only Memory
ORS Output Record Separator
OS Operating System
OS/2 Operating System/2 [IBM]
OSA Open Scripting/System Architecture
OSCAR Open Source Cluster Application Resources
OSD On Screen Display +
Open Software Description/Distribution
OSE Office Server Extensions [Microsoft]
OS/E Operating System/Environment
OSF Open Software Foundation
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSM Off-Screen Model
OSP On-Screen Programming + Optical Storage Processor
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OSQL Object Structured Query Language
OSR2 OEM Service Release 2 [Microsoft]
OSS Open Source Software
OT Object Technology
OTA Operation-Triggered Architecture + Over The Air
OTDR Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
OTF Open Token Foundation
OTI Object Technology International [IBM]
OTP One-Time Programmable
OUI Organizational Unique Identifier
OURS Open Users Recommended Solutions
.OUT Outlines (file name extension)
OUTS Output String
OV Overflow
OVAL Object-Based Virtual Application Language [Psion]

Open Vulnerability Assessment Language [US-CERT]
.OVL Program Overlay (file name extension)
.OVR Program Overlay (file name extension)
OWL Object/Open Windows Library [Borland]
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P3P Platform for Privacy Preferences Project
PAB Personal Address Book
PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange
PACE Priority Access Control Enabled [3Com]
PACS Picture Archiving and Communication System
PACS-L Public Access Computer Systems List [Internet]
PAD Packet Assembler/Disassembler +
Portable Application Description
PADS Pen Application Development System [Slate

PAIH Public-Access Internet Host [Internet]
PAIS Public-Access Internet Site [Internet]
.PAK Packed (compressed file name extension) [NoGate
PAL Paradox Applications Language [Borland] +
Phase Alternating Line + Programmed Array Logic +
Programming Assembly Language
.PAL Palette (file name extension)
PALC Plasma-Addressed Liquid Crystal (display)
PALS Principles of the Alphabet Literacy System
PAM Pluggable Authentication Module (library) +
Pulse Amplitude Modulation
PAN Personal Area Network [GTE]
PAP Packet-level Procedure +
Password Authentication Protocol + Picture And

Picture +
Push Access Protocol + Printer Access Protocol
PAR Personal Animation Recorder + Parallel
PARA Paragraph
PARC Palo Alto Research Center [XEROX]
PA-RISC Precision Architecture-RISC [HP]
.PAS PASCAL source code (file name extension)
PASCAL (Programming Language named for Blaise Pascal)
PAT Port Address Translation
.PAT Patch + Pattern (file name extensions)
PATA Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment
PATN Promotional Port Access Telephone Number
PAUSE Perl Automatic Upload Server
PAX Portable Archive Exchange [Unix]
PB Petabyte (1,024 terabytes)
(One Million Billion characters of information)
PBA Printed Board Assembly
PBC Plain-Text Block Chaining
PBE Prompt By Example
PBGA Plastic Ball Grid Array
PBR Policy-Based Routing [Cisco]
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PC Personal Computer + Printed Circuit + Program

PCACIAS Personal Computer Automated Calibration Interval
Analysis System
PCB Printed Circuit Board + Program Control Block
PCBC Plain/Propagating Cipher Block Chaining
PCC Proof Carrying Code
PCD Photo Compact Disk
PC-DOS Personal Computer - Disk Operating System [IBM]
PCEB PCI to EISA Bridge [Intel]
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect/Interface
PCIC PC-Card Interrupt Controller
PC-I/O Program Controlled I/O
PCL Printer Command Language [HP] + Process Control

PCM Personal Computer Manufacturer +
Printer Cartridge Metric [HP] +
Pulse Code Modulation
PCMA Paired Carrier Multiple Access
PCMC PCI, Cache, Memory Controller [Intel]
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International

PCMIM Personal Computer Media Interface Module
PCN Personal Computer Network
PCNFS Personal Computer Network File System
PCO Point of Control and Observation
PCS Patchable Control Store +
Personal Communication Services/System +
Personal Conferencing Specification +
Planning Control Sheet + Print Contrast Signal +
Process Control Systems + Program Counter Store +
Project Control System
PCT Private Communications Technology +
Program Control Table
.PCT Picture (file name extension)
.PCX Picture Image (file name extension)
PD Phase-Change Dual + Public Domain
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
.PDB Palm Database (file name extension) +
Program Database (file name extension)
PDC Primary Domain Controller
PDD Physical Device Driver + Portable Digital Document
PDF Package Definition File + Portable Document Format

Portable Document File + Processor Defined

Function +
Program Development Facility
.PDF Printer Description (file name

PDH Plesiosynchronous Digital Hierarchy
PDIAL Public Dialup Internet Access List [Internet]
PDL Page Description Language + Program Description

+ Program Design Language
PDM Product Data Management
PDN Public Data Network
PDO Portable Distributed Objects [Next]
PDP Parallel Data Processing + Plasma Display Panel +
Programmable Data Processor +
(DEC Computer System Designation, i.e. PDP-8,

PDS Packet Driver Specification + Partitioned Data Set

Planetary Data System + Portable Document Software

Processor Direct Slot [Macintosh]
PDSN Packet Data Serving Node
PDSS Post Development and Software Support
PDT Performance Diagnostic Tool [IBM] +
Programmable Drive Table
PDU Plug Distribution Unit + Protocol Data Unit
.PDX Paradox files (file name extension) [Borland] +
Printer Description Extension (file name

PE Parity Even + Processing Element + Protect Enable
PEA Pocket Ethernet Adapter
PEB Personal Electronic Ballot
P4EE Pentium 4 Extreme Edition [Intel]
PEL Picture Element [IBM]
PEM Privacy-Enhanced Mail [Internet]
PEN SDK Pen Computing Software Development Kit
PEP Packet Exchange Protocol +
Packetized Ensemble Protocol [Telebit]
PERC Power Edge RAID Controller
PERL Practical Extraction and Report Language [Unix]
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique
PES Positioning Error Signal + Processor Enhancement

Processor Upgrade Socket
PET Print Enhancement Technology [Compaq]
.PFB Printer Font Binary (file name extension)
PFE Programmer's File Editor
.PFM Printer Font Metrics (file name extension)

PFN Page Frame Number
PFR Portable Font Resource + Power-Fail Restart
PGA Pin Grid Array + Professional Graphics Adapter

PGC Program Group Control [Microsoft]
PGDN Page Down
.PGL Graphics (file name extension) [Hewlett-Packard]
PGM Program
PGML Precision Graphics Markup Language
PGP Pretty Good Privacy (name of encryption program)
.PGP ProGram Parameter (file name extension) [AutoCAD]
PGUP Page Up
PHF Perfect Hash Function
PHIGS Programmers' Hierarchical Interactive Graphics
.PHO Phone List (file name extension)
PHP Personal Home Pages (original name of this programming
language, now known as PHP Hypertext Preprocessor)
PHS Personal Handyphone System
PI Program Interruption
PIA Peripheral Interface Adapter
PIC Personal Information Carrier +
Personal Intelligent Communicator +
Personal Internet Communicator +
Platform for Internet Content +
Priority Interrupt Controller +
Program Interrupt Controller
PICS Platform for Internet Content Selection [W3C]
PICT Picture
PID Packet Identifier + Physical Interface Device +
Process Identification Number + Product ID +
Proportional, Integral, Derivative
PIER Procedures for Internet/Enterprise Renumbering
PIF Picture Interchange Format File +
Program Information File
PII Program Integrated Information
PILOT Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching
PilotACE* Pilot Automatic Computing Engine
PIM Personal Information Manager +
Primary Interface Module +
Protocol-Independent Multicast
PIN Personal Identification Number +
Process Identification Number [Unix]
PINE Pine Is Not Elm (original usage) +
Program for Internet News & Email (present usage)
PING Packet Internet Groper
PIO Parallel Input/Output + Processor Input/Output +
Programmed Input/Output
PIP Pattern and Information Processing +
Picture-In-Picture + Problem Isolation Procedure +
Programmable Interconnect Point
PIPO Parallel In, Parallel Out
PIR Protocol Independent Routing
PIT Programmable Interval Timer
PIXEL Picture Element
PJPEG Progressive JPEG
PK Pack + Primary Key
PKC Public Key Cryptography
PKE Public Key Enabled
PKI Public Key Infrastructure
PL Plus
.PL Perl Language (file name extension)
PLA Programmable Logic-Array
PLATO Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations
PLC Power Line Communications +
Programmable Logic Controller
PLCC Plastic Leadless Chip Carrier
PLD Programmable Logic Device
PLDS Pilot Land Data System [NASA]
PLL Phase Locked Loop
.PLL Prelinked Library (file name extension) [Clipper]
PL/M Programming Language for Micros
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PLS Primary Link Station
PLSQL Procedural Language-Extensions to SQL (Oracle)
PLU Primary Logical Unit
PLV Production Level Video
PL/1 * Programming Language One
PM Presentation Manager [IBM] +
Preventative Maintenance + Process Manager
.PM6 PagerMaker6 (file name extension) [Corel]
P-MAIL Paper Mail
PMD Packet Mode Data
PMMU Paged Memory Management Unit
PMOS Positive Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor
PMP Personal Media Player
PMR Problem Management Report [IBM]
PMU Performance Monitoring Unit
PMS Policy Management System
PN Processing Node
P/N: Part Number
PNA Programmable Network Access
PNG Portable Network Graphics
PNNI Private Network-to-Network Interface
PNP Plug And Play +
Positive Negative Positive (bipolar transistor)
PO Parity Odd
POA Portable Object Adapter
POC Point Of Contact
POC-IT Point Of Care-Information Technology [Johns Hopkins]
POD Piece Of Data + Plain Old Documentation [Perl] +
Plain Old Dos + Publishing On Demand
POE Power Open Environment
POH Power-On Hours
POL Problem Oriented Language
POP Picture-Outside-Picture + Point Of Presence +
Pop from Stack + Post Office Protocol
POP3 Post Office Protocol, Version 3
POPA Pop All Registers
POPF Pop Flags
POR Power-On-Reset
POS Packet Over Sonet + Point of Sale + Positive +
Programmable Object Select
POSE Palm Operating System Emulator
POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for Unix
POST Power-On Self Test
POSTNET Postal Numeric Encoding Technique (bar code)
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service + Plain Old

POWER Performance Optimization with Enhanced RISC [IBM]
PowerPC Performance Optimization with Enhanced

PP Parallel Port
P2P Peer To Peer + People To People
P3P Platform for Privacy Preferences
PPA Pixel Processing Accelerator
.PPD PostScript Printer Description (file name

PPDS Personal Printer Data Stream [IBM]
PPGA Plastic Pin Grid Array
PPI Precise Pixel Interpolation
PPM Pages Per Minute
PPML Personalized Print Markup Language
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol [Internet]
PPPOE Point-to-Point Protocol Over Ethernet
PPS Packets Per Second + Power Personal Systems [IBM]
.PPS PowerPoint Show (file name extension) [Microsoft]
PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol [Microsoft]
PQA Palm Query Application
PQFP Plastic Quad Flat Pack
PQO Parallel Query Option
PRACSA Public Remote Access Computer Standards

PRAM Parallel Random-Access Machine +
Parameter Random Access Memory
.PRC Pilot Resource (file name extension) [Palm Pilot]
.PRD Printer Driver (file name extension) [Microsoft]
PRE Preformatted [HTML]
PREP Power PC Reference Platform [IBM/Motorola]
PRF Pulse Repetition Frequency
.PRF Preferences (file name extension) [Grammatik IV]
.PRG Program (file name extension)
PRI Primary-Rate Interface
PRINTF Print with Formatting [C Programming Language]
PRISM Photo-Refractive Information Storage Material
.PRJ Project (file name extension) [Borland]
PRMD Private Management Domain [X.400]
PRML Partial-Response Maximum-Likelihood
.PRO Professionals (Domain Name) [Internet] +
Profile (file name extension)
PROC Procedure
PROFS Professional Office System [IBM]
PROG Program + Programmer
PROLOG Programming In Logic (Programming Language)(See

PROM Programmable Read Only Memory
PRN Printer
PRNG Pseudo-Random Number Generation (algorithm)
.PRS Printer (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
PRTSC Print Screen
PS Proportional Spacing
.PS PostScript (file name extension)
PS/2 Programming System 2 [IBM]
PSAPI Presentation Space Application Programming

PSC Personal Super Computer + Print Server Command +
Product Service Center
PSDN Packet-Switched Data Network
PSDS Packet-Switched Data Service
PSERVER Print Server [NetWare]
PSF Permanent Swap File
PSID PostScript Image Data
PSINET (formerly Performance Systems International)
PSK Phase Shift Keying
PSM Platform Specific Model + Printing Systems Manager

Print Services Facility [IBM]
PSN Packet Switching Network +
Processor Serial Number
PSP Personal Software Products (group) [IBM] +
Program Segment Prefix
PSPDN Packet-Switched Public Data Network
PSRAM Pseudo-Static Random Access Memory
PSRT PostScript Round Table [GEnie]
PSS Process Status Structure
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PSU Power Supply Unit
PSW Program Status Word
.ps.Z Compressed PostScript (file name extension) [Unix]
PT Page Table
P/T Part Time
PTD Parallel Transfer Disk Drive
PTE Page Table Entry
PTF Problem Temporary/Trouble Fix [IBM]
PTH Plated Through Hole
PTI Packet Type Identifier
PTT Postal Telephone & Telegraph
PUB Public (directory) [Internet] + Publish
.PUB Publication (file name extension) [Ventura]
PUN Physical Unit Number
PUP PARC Universal Packet (protocol)
PURL Persistent URL
PUS Processor Upgrade Socket
PUSHA Push All Registers
PUSHF Push Flags
PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit + Polyvinyl Chloride
PVM Parallel Virtual Machine +
Pass-through Virtual Machine (protocol) [IBM]
PVP Parallel Vector Processing
PVR Personal Video Recorder
PVS Parallel Visualization Server
PVT Position, Velocity, Time
PW Password
PWB Printed Wire Board +
Programmer's Workbench [Microsoft]
PWD Print Working Directory [Unix]
.PWL Password List (file name extension)
PWM Pulse Width Modulation
PWR Power
PWSCS Programmable Workstation Communication Services

.PX Primary Index (file name extension) [Paradox]
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QA Quality Assurance
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QBE Query By Example
QBF Query by Form
QBIC Query By Image Content [IBM]
QBITS Quantum Bits
QC Quality Control
QD Querty/Dvorak
QDA Qualitative Data Analysis
QDOS Quick and Dirty Operating System
.QDI Quicken Dictionary (file name extension) [Intuit]
.QDT Quicken Data (file name extension) [Intuit]
QEMM Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager [Quarterdeck

QFA Quick File Access
QFE Quick-Fix Engineering [Microsoft]
QFP Quad Flat Pack
QIC Quality Information Using Cycle Time

[Hewlett-Packard] +
Quarter-Inch Cartridge
.QIF Quicken Import File/Interchange Format
(file name extension)
QLLC Qualified Logical Link Control
.QMT Quicken Memorized List (file name extension)

.QNX Quicken Indexes to Data (file name extension)

QOS Quality Of Service
QPG Quantum Phase Gate
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
QSAM Queued Sequential Access Method
QTC Quicktime Conferencing [Macintosh]
QTVR Quicktime Virtual Reality
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RA Remote Assistance + Return Authorization
.RA Real Audio (file name extension)
RACF Resource Access Control Facility
RAD Rapid Application Development
RADAR Radio Detection And Ranging +
Rights, Availabilities, Distribution Analysis
and Reporting [Disney]
RADB Routing Arbiter Data Base
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
RADSL Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line
RAG Row Address Generator
RAID Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks +
Redundant Arrays of Independent Drives +
Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
RAIS Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Systems
RALU Register Arithmetic Logic Unit
RAM Random Access Memory
.RAM Real Audio Metafile (file name extension)
RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog
Converter [Sierra]
RAMP Remote Access Maintenance Protocol [Internet]
RAN Radio Access Network + Regional Advanced Network
RAND Random
RAP Rapid Application Prototyping
RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RAS Random Access Storage +
Reader Admission System [British Library] +
Reliability, Availability and Serviceability +
Remote Access Service + Row Address Select
RASAPI Remote Access Service Application Programming
Interface [Microsoft]
.RAT Rating (file name extension)
RAVE Rendering Acceleration Virtual Engine [Apple

.RAW Raw Data (file name extension)
RB Right Button (of 2 or 3 button Mouse)
RBBS Remote Bulletin Board System
RBCS Remote Bar Code System
RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company
.RC Resource (file name extension)
RC1 Release Candidate 1 [Microsoft]
RCD Redistribution Control Descriptor
RCL Rotate Carry Left
RCP Remote Control Panel + Remote Copy [Internet] +
Restore Cursor Position + Rich Client Platform
RCPT Recipient
RCR Rotate Carry Right
RCS Records Communications Switching System +
Revision Control System [Unix]
RD Receive Data + Remove Directory
R&D Research and Development
RDA Remote Database Access
RDB Receive Data Buffer + Relational Database
RDBMS Relational Database Management System
RDCLK Received Timing Clock
RDF Resource Description Framework [W3C]
RDIF Radio Frequency Indentification (tag)
RDN Relative Distinguished Name
RDO Remote Data Object
RDP Reliable Datagram Protocol + Remote Desktop

RDR Remote Data Recovery
RDSR Receiver Data Service Request
RDTO Receive Data Transfer Offset [IBM]
RDX Realistic Display Mixer
.REC Recorder (file name extension) +
Recreational or Entertainment Activities (Domain
Name) [Internet]
REC. Recreation [USENET Newsgroup Category]
.REF Reference (file name extension)
REG Register
REGAL Rigid Epoxy Glass Acrylic Laminate
REGEDIT Registry Editor [Microsoft]
RELSECT Relative Sector
REM Remark + Remote + Ring Error Monitor
REN Rename + Ringer Equivalence Number
REP Repeat
REPE Repeat while Equal
REPNE Repeat while Not Equal
REPNZ Repeat while Not Zero
REPZ Repeat while Zero
REQ Request
REREG Re-Register
RES Remote Execution Service + Reset + Resolution
.RES Resource (file name extension)
RET Resolution Enhancement Technology [HP] + Return
RETR Retrieve
REX Relocatable Executable
REXEC Remote Execution
REXX Restructured Extended Executor (language) [IBM]
RF Radio Frequency
RFC Request For Comments [Internet]
RFD Reduced Function Device +
Request for Discussion [Internet]
RFI Radio Frequency Interference + Request for

RFID Radio Frequency Identification
RFP Request for Proposal
RFQ Request for Quotation
RFS Remote File Sharing + Remote File System
RFT Revisable Form Text + Rich Text Format
RFU Reserved For Future Use
RGB Red-Green-Blue (color model)
RI Referential Integrity + Ring Indicate
RID Relative Identifier
RIFF Resource Interchange File Format [Microsoft]
RIM Remote Installation and Maintenance [Microsoft] +
Research In Motion (company) + Ring Indicator Monitor
RIME RelayNet International Message Exchange
RIP Raster Image Processor + Remote Imaging Protocol +
Routing Information Protocol [Novell]
RIPEM Riordan's Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail
RIPS Raster Image Processing System
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computing
RIT Raw Input Thread [Microsoft]
RJE Remote Job Entry
RLD Received Line Detect
RLE Run Length Encoded
RLL Run Length Limited
RLN Remote LAN Node [DCA]
RLOGIN Remote Login
RLSD Received Line Signal Detected
RLSI * Ridiculously Large-Scale Integration
RM Reset Mode
RMA Return Material Authorization +
Return to Manufacturer Authorization
RMB Right Mouse Button
RMC Raptor Management Console [Symantec]
RMDIR Remove Directory
RMI Remote Messaging Interface +
Remote Method Invocation [Sun]
RMON Remote Monitor/Monitoring
RMP Remote Maintenance Processor [IBM]
RMS Record Management Services + Root Mean Square
RMW Read-Modify-Write
RN Read News [Internet]
RNA Remote Network Access [Microsoft]
RNC Radio Network Controller
RND Random
RNG Random Number Generator
RNP Regional Network Provider
R-O Read Only
ROB Reorder Buffer [Intel]
ROI Return On Investment
ROL Rotate Left
ROLAP Relational On-Line Analytical Processing
ROM Read Only Memory
ROOM Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling
ROP Raster Operation + RISC Operation
ROPES Rapid Object-Oriented Process for
Embedded Systems
ROR Rotate Right
ROS Read-Only Storage [IBM]
ROSCOE Remote Operating System Conversational Online
ROT Running Object Table
RPC Remote Procedure Call
RPE Remote Program Execution
RPG Report Program Generator (Programming Language)
RPL Resident Programming Language +
Requested Privilege Level
RPM Revolutions Per Minute
RPN Real Page Number + Reverse Polish Notation
RPRINTER Remote Printer [NetWare]
RPPROM Reprogrammable PROM
RPR Relative Performance Rating
RPT Repeat
RPQ Request for Price Quotation
RQBE Relational Query By Example [Fox Pro]
RR Real Reality
RRP Recommended Retail Price
RS Radio Shack +
Recommended Standard (as in RS-232) [EIA] +
Record Separator + Request to Send
RSA Rural Service Area
RSA129 (129 digit cryptographic security number named

its inventors: Drs. Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir

Leonard M. Adleman)
RSAC Recreational Software Advisory Council
RSCS Remote Spooling Communications System
RSD Route Server Daemon
RSH Remote Shell
RSI Repetitive Strain Injury (Carpal Tunnel Syndrome)
RSL Request-and-Status Link
RSP Required Space Character + Response
RSPX Remote Sequenced Packet Exchange
RSS Really Simple Syndication + Reduced Space Symbology +
RDF Site Summary + Rich Site Summary
RST Reset + Restart
RSTS Resource Sharing Time Sharing [Digital]
RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol
RSX Realistic Sound Experience +
Real Time Resource Sharing Executive
RT Real Time + RISC Technology + Run Time
R/T Receive/Transmit
RTAM Remote Terminal Access Method
RTC Real-Time Clock
RTCP Real-Time Control Protocol
RTDM Real-Time Data Migration
RTEL Reverse Telnet [Internet]
RTF Rich Text Format
RTI Run Time Infrastructure
RTL Raster Transfer Language +
Register Transfer Language/Level +
Resistor Transistor Logic + Right-To-Left +
Run Time Library
RTM Response Time Monitor + Runtime Manager [Borland]
RTMP Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
RTN Reuters Transaction Network
RTOS Real-Time Operating System
RTP Rapid Transport Protocol + Real Time Protocol +
Real-Time Transport Protocol
RTS Remote Takeover System + Ready/Request To Send
RTSP Real-Time Streaming Protocol
RTTI Runtime Type Identification/Information
RTTY Radio Teletypewriter (Communications)
RTV Real Time Video
RTX Run Time Extension
RUN Rewind/Unload [IBM]
RVA Relative Virtual Address
RVI Reverse Interrupt
R/W Read/Write
RWIN Receive Window
RWM Read-Write Memory
RX Receiver
RXD Receive Data
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SA Selective Availability
SAA Systems Application Architecture [IBM]
SABRE Semi-Automatic Business Research Environment
SAC Single Attachment Concentrator
SACD Super Audio Compact Disk
SACL System Access Control List
SADL Synchronous Data Link Control [Racal-Vadic]
SAINT * Symbolic Automatic Integrator
SAL Shift Arithmetic Left + Spatial Aggregation

Language +
Systen Abstraction Layer
SALT Speech Application Language Tags
SAM Serial Access Memory + Sequential Access Method +
Security Accounts Manager [Microsoft] +
Single Application Mode [Microsoft]
SAMI Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange
SAML Security Assertion Markup Language
SAN Storage/System Area Network
SANE Standard Apple Numeric Environment
SAP Second Audio Program + Service Access Point [DEC]

Session Announcement Protocol +
Service Advertising Protocol +
* Symbolic Assembly Program +
Systems, Applications and Products (company) [SAP]
SAPI Speech Application Program Interface [Microsoft]
SAR Segmentation and Reassembly +
Shift Arithmetic Right + Specific Absorption Rate
Successive Approximation Register +
Synthetic Aperature Radar
SARG Search Argument
SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (virus)
SAS Sales Accounting System + Serial Attached SCSI +
Single Attached Station + Single Audio System +
Statistical Analysis System
SASI Shugart Associates System Interface (SCSI

from SASI)
SATA Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
SATAN Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks
.SAV Saved (file name extension)
SAVDM Single Application VDM
SAX Simple API for XML
SB Sound Blaster [Creative Labs] + Sound Board
SBA Scene Balance Algorithms [Kodak] +
Service Based Architecture
SBAS Satellite Based Augmentation System
SBB Subtract With Borrow
SBC Single-Board Computer
SBCS Single-Byte Character Set
SBI Sound Blaster Instrument
.SBR Source Browser (file name extension) [Borland]
SBS Small Business Server +
Smart Battery Specification [Duracell/Intel]
.SC Script (file name extension)
SCA Scalable Computing Architecture [HP]
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCAM SCSI Configuration Automatically
SCAS Scan String
SCB Subsystem Control Block [IBM]
SCC Serial Communications Controllers +
Serial Controller Chip +
Synchronous Channel Check [IBM]
SCCP Simple Conference Control Protocol
SCCS Source Code Control System
SCD Standard Color Display
S-CDMA Synchronous Code-Division Multiple Access
SCF System Control Facility
SCI Scalable Coherent Interface +
Serial Communications Interface
SCI. Science [USENET Newsgroup Category]
SCIL Serial Control Interface Logic
SCLM Software Configuration and Library Management

SCM Service Control Manager + ScreenCam Format [Lotus]

Software Configuration Management + Station Class

Mark +
Supply Chain Management
SCO Santa Cruz Operation (Software Company) +
Synchronous Connection-Oriented (link)
SCOPE Simple Communications Programming Environment
SCP Save Cursor Position + Subsystem Control Port +
System Control Program
SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier
.SCR Script (file name extension)
SCRAM Software Configuration, Release and Management
SCRAMJET Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (engine)
SCRN Screen (video display)
SCRS Scalable Cluster of RISC Systems
SCSA Signal Computing System Architecture [Dialogic]
SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface
SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SD Send Data + Super Density
SDA Software Delivery Agent [IBM] + Software Disk

Array +
Source Data Automation + System Display Architecture

SDAM Single DOS Application Mode
SDB Symbolic Debugger [Unix]
SDD Software Description Database [Internet] +
Subscriber Data Document +
System Distribution Directory
SDF Space Delimited File + Space Delimited Format
.SDF Standard Data Format (file name extension)
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDI Selective Dissemination of Information +
Single Document Interface
Software Development Interface [Mosaic]
SDK Software Development Kit [Microsoft]
SDL Specification and Description Language
SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control (protocol)
SDLT Super Digital Linear Tape
SDM System Development Multitasking
SDMI Secure Digital Music Initiative/Interface
SDMMC Secure Digital Multi Media Card
SDMS SCSI Device Management System [NCR]
SDN Software Defined Network [AT&T]
SDNS Secure Data Network Service
SDR Streaming Data Request
SDRAM Synchronous DRAM
SD-ROM Super Density ROM
SDS Sysops Distribution System
SDSM Super Digital Sound Management
SD_STB Streaming Data Strobe [IBM]
SDTV Standard Definition Television
SDV Switched Digital Video [AT&T]
SDX Storage Data Acceleration
SDXF Structured Data Exchange Format
SEA Standard Extended Attribute [OS/2]
.SEA Self Extracting Archive (file name extension)

SEAC * Name of first computer to use transistors, built

(National Bureau of) Standards Eastern Automatic
Calculator (Also see SWAC)
SEAL Segmentation and Reassembly Layer (protocol) +
Screening External Access Link [Digital-DEC]
SEC Single Error Correction
SECAM Sequentiel Couleur Avec Memoire
(Sequential Color With Memory)
SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge
SED Stream Editor + Stream-Oriented Editor
SEG Segment
SEH Structured Exception Handling
SEL Select
SEM Scanning Electron Microscope +
Standard Electronic Module +
Strategic Enterprise Management [SAP]
SEO Search Engine Optimization
SEPP Secure Encryption Payment Protocol
SER Serial
SERCOS Serial Real-Time Communications System
SERPS Search Engine Results Page [Google]
SET Secure Electronic Transaction +
Softwave Engineering Technology
.SET Driver Set (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3]

[LDC] +
Image Settings (file name extension) [Paradox]
SETEXT Structure Enhanced Text [Internet]
SEU Single Event Upset + Smallest Executable Unit
SF Sign Flag
SFC System File Checker
SFD Start Frame Delimiter
SFDR Spurious-Free Dynamic Range
SFI Software Fault Isolation
SFN Short File Name
SFQL Structured Full-text Query Language
SFS System File Server
SFT System Fault Tolerance
SFX Self Extracting + Sound Effect(s)
SGA Shared Global Area
SGCP Simple Gateway Control Protocol
SGEN Signal Generator + System Generator
SGDT Store Global Descriptor Table
SGI Silicon Graphics, Inc.
SGM Shaded Graphics Modeling
SGML Standard/Structured Generalized Markup Language
SGR Set Graphics Rendition
SGRAM Synchronous Graphics RAM
S/H Sample and Hold
SHA Secure Hash Algorithm [NSA]
SHAR Shell Archive
SHED Segmented Hypergraphic Editor
SHG Segmented Hypergraphics
SHL Shift Logical Left
SHOE Simple HTML Ontology Extension
SHR Shift Logical Right
SHTML Server-Side Include HyperText Markup Language
S-HTTP Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
SHV Standard High-Volume
.SHW Show (file name extension)
SI Shift-In + Source Index + System Information +
System Integration
SIC Standard Industrial Code
SID Security Identifier + Serial Input Data +
Station Identification [AT&T] +
Symbolic Interactive Debugger + System ID
SIDF System Independent Data Format
SIDH System Identification for Home Systems
SIDT Store Interrupt Descriptor Table
SIF Standard Input Format
SIFT Stanford Information Filtering Tool
SIG Special Interest Group
SIGCAT Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications
and Technology
SIM Simulator + Subscriber Identity Module
SIMCARD Subscriber Identity Module Card

SIMD Single Instruction, Multiple Data-stream

SIMM Single In-line Memory Module
SIMTEL Simulation and Teleprocessing
SIMULA Simulation (language)
SIO Serial Input/Output (communications driver)
SIP Session Initiation Protocol + Single In-line

SIPC Simply Interactive Personal Computer [Microsoft]
SIPO Serial In, Parallel Out
SIPP Single In-line Pin Package
SIR Serial Infrared [Hewlett-Packard]
SIRDS Single-Image Random Dot Stereogram
SIS Single-Image Stereogram
SISL System Interrupt Steering Logic
SISNET Signal In Space Through The Internet
SI/SO Serial In/Serial Out + Shift In/Shift Out
SIT Special Information Tones
.SIT Stuff-It (compressed file name extension)

SIU System Interface Unit
SIV System Integrity Verifier
SKIP Simple Key-Management for Internet Protocols [Sun]
SKU# Stock Keeping Unit Number
SLA Service Level Agreement
SLB Static Load Balancing
SLC Subscriber Line Concentrator
SLD Second-Level Domain (name)
SLDT Store Local Descriptor Table
SLED Single Large Expensive Disk
SLI Session Level Interface
SLIC System Level Integration Circuit +
System Licensed Internal Code [IBM]
SLIM Structured Language for Internet Markup
SLIP Serial Line Interface Protocol
SLM Spatial Light Modulator
SLMR Silly Little Mail Reader
SLOSH Sea, Lake and Overland Surge from Hurricane

SLOT Scanned Laser Output Terminal
SLP Service Location Protocol
SLR Single Lens Reflex
SLSI Super Large-Scale Integration
SLSS Systems Library Subscription Service [IBM]
SLU Secondary Logical Unit + Spoken Language

SM Set Mode + Shared Memory
SMA Software Migration Assistant [IBM]
SMART Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology
SMB Server Message Block (protocol) [MII]
SMD Surface Mounted Device
SMDR Station Message Detail Recording
SMDS Switched Multimedia/Multi-Megabit Data Service
SMF Single Mode Fiber + System Manager Facility

SMI System Management Interrupt [Intel]
SMIF Standard Mechanical Interface
SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
SMIT System Management Interface Tool [IBM]
SMK Software Migration Kit [Microsoft]
SML Standard Meta Language
SMM System Management Mode [Intel]
SMOBC Solder Mask Over Bare Copper
SMP Simple Management Protocol + Symbolic Manipulation
Program + Symmetrical Multi-Processing +
Symmetric Multiprocessor
.SMP Sample (file name extension)
SMPC Shared Memory Parallel Computer
SMPS Switching Mode Power Supply
SMRAM System Management Random Access Memory
SMS Short Message Service [Sprint] +
Short Messaging System +
Storage Management Services [NetWare] +
Storage Management Subsystem/System +
Systems Management Server [Microsoft]
SMSW Store Machine Status Word
SMT Station Management (protocol) +
Surface-Mount Technology
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SMU System Management Utility
SN Serial Number
S/N Signal-to-Noise (Ratio)
SNA Systems Network Architecture [IBM]
SNAP Sub-Network Access Protocol +
Sub-Network Attachment Point
SNAPI Structured N-Dimensional Application Program
Interface [Oracle]
SND Sound
SNEWS Secure News Server [Internet]
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SNOBOL String Oriented Symbolic Language (Programming

SNP Serial Number/Password [Omen Technology]
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SNRM Set Normal Response Mode
SOA Service-Oriented Architecture + Start Of Authority
SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol
SOC System On a Chip
SOC. Social Issues [USENET Newsgroup Category]
SOCKS Socket Secure (server) [Internet]
SO-DIMM Small Outline DIMM
SOE Standard Operating Environment
SOH Start of Header
SOHO Small Office/Home Office
SOI Silicon-On-Insulator [IBM]
SOIC Small Outline Integrated Circuit
SOJ Small-Outline J-Lead
SOL Simulation Oriented Language
SOM Start of Message + System Object Model [IBM]
SONAR Sound Navigation and Ranging
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SOP Small Outline Package + Standard Operating

SOS Silicon On Sapphire + Sophisticated Operating

System +
Standards and Open Systems
SOTA State Of The Art
SOX Sound Exchange
SP Service Pack [IBM] + Stack Pointer + System

SPA Secure Password Authentication [Microsoft] +
Software Publishers Association
SPAN Space Physics Analysis Network
SPAP Shiva Password Authentification Protocol
SPARC Scalable Processor Architecture +
Sun's Palo Alto Research Center
SPC Small Peripheral Controller + Statistical Process

SPCL Spectrum Cellular Corporation
SPCS Stored Program Controlled Switch
SPD Serial Presence Detect
SPE Synergistic Processing Element
SPEC Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative
SPF Sender Policy Framework + Shortest Path First +
System Programming Facility
SPGA Staggered Pin-Grid Array
SPI Security Parameters Index + Service Provider

Interface +
SCSI Parallel Interface + Stateful Packet

.SPI Spool (file name extension)
SPID Service Profile/Provider Identifier
SPIKE Science Planning Intelligent Knowledge-Based
Environment [STScI]
SPIRES Stanford Public Information Retrieval System
[Stanford University]
SPKI Simple Public Key Infrastructure
SPL Spooler + System Programming Language [HP]
.SPL Spell Checker (file name extension)
SPLD Simple Programmable Logic Device
SPM System Performance Monitor [IBM]
SPOOL Simultaneous Peripheral Operations On Line
SPOT Shared Product Object Tree [IBM] +
Smart Personal Object Technology [Microsoft]
SPP Sequenced Packet Protocol + Standard Printer Port
SPPS Scalable Power Parallel System [IBM]
SPR Special Purpose Register +
Statistical Pattern Recognition +
Symmetrical Phase Recording
SPREAD * Systems Programming, Research, Engineering
and Development [IBM]
SPS Secure Packet Shield + Shock Protection System +
Standby Power System
SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
SPT Sectors Per Track
SPX Sequenced Packet Exchange [Novell]
SQ Squeezed (files)
SQE Signal Quality Error (test)
SQL/DS Structured Query Language/Data System [IBM]
SQOS Secure Quality Of Service
SQRT Square Root
SR Shift Register
SRAM Shadow Random Access Memory +
Static Random Access Memory
SRAPI Speech Recognition API
SRB Source-Route Bridge
SRC System Resource Controller
.SRC Source (file name extension)
SRD Screen Reader System
SRDRAM Self-Refreshed DRAM
SRGB Sustained RGB (values)
SRGS Speech Recognition Grammar Specification [W3C]
SRM Security Reference Monitor
SRO Sharable and Read Only
SRP Suggested Retail Price
.SRP Script (file name extension)
SRPI Server-Requester Programming Interface
SRQ Service Request
SRR Serially Reusable Resource
SRS Sound Retrieval System
SS Stack Segment + Single Sided + Seconds
SS7 Signaling System 7 [Bellcore]
SSA Serial Storage Architecture
SSAD Structured System Analysis and Design
SSAP Source Service Access Point
SSCP Systems Service Control Point [IBM]
SSD Solid State Disk
SSEC * Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator [IBM]
SSGA System Support Gate Array
SSH Secure Shell (protocol)
SSI Server Side Includes + Single System Image +
Small Scale Integration
SSL Secure Socket Layer
SSMA Spread Spectrum Multiple Access
SSML Speech Synthesis Markup Language [W3C]
SSO Single Sign On
SSPI Security Service Provider Interface [Microsoft]
SSR Secure Socket Relay
SSRP Simple Server Redundancy Protocol [Cisco]
SST Spread-Spectrum Technology +
Systems Services and Technology
STA Spanning Tree Algorithm
STAR Self Defining Text Archival
STAX (StAX) Streaming API for XML
STB Strobe
STC Set Carry Flag
STD Set Direction Flag + Standard
STDA StreetTalk Directory Assistance [Banyan]
STDAUX Standard Auxilary
STDERR Standard Error
STDIN Standard Input
STDIO.H Standard Input/Output Header [C Programming

STDM Statistical Time Division Multiplexer
STDOUT Standard Output
STDPRN Standard Printer
STEP Standard for Exchange of Product
.STF Structured File (file name extension) [Lotus

STI Set Interrupt Flag
S/TK Sectors Per Track
STL Standard Template Library
STM Scanning Tunneling Microscope
STN Super-Twist Nematic
.STORE Businesses Offering Goods (Domain Name) [Internet]
STOS Store String
STP Secure Transfer Protocol + Shielded Twisted Pair

(cable) +
Signal Transfer Point +
Synchronized Transaction Processing
STR Store Task Register + Synchronous Transmitter

STRESS Structural Engineering System Solver (Programming
STRUDL Structural Design Language (Programming Language)
STScI Space Telescope Science Institute
STT Secure Transaction Technology [Microsoft]
STX Start of Text
.STY Style (file name extension) [Ventura, Word,

SUB Subroutine + Substitute + Subtract
SUN Sun Microsystems, Inc.
.SUP Supplemental Dictionary (file name extension)
SVC Switched Virtual Circuit
SVCD Super Video Compact Disk
SVF Simple Vector Format
SVG Scalable Vector Graphics
SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
SVM System Virtual Machine [Microsoft] +
System Volume Mangement
SVN Switched Virtual Network [IBM]
SVR Server
SVR# System V Release Number [AT&T]
SVTC Secure Videoteleconference
S/W Software
SWAC * Mobile version of SEAC, built for deployment to

Sands, and named Standards Western Automatic

SWAIS Simple Wide Area Information Server [Internet]
SWAP Shared Wireless Access Protocol
SWIG Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator
SWISH Simple Web Indexing System for Humans
SWP Simple Web Printing
.SWP Swap (file name extension)
SXRD Silicon Crystal Reflective Display
.SYL Syllabus (file name extension)
SYLK Symbolic Link
.SYM Symbols (file name extension)
SYMPL Systems Programming Language
.SYN Synonym (file name extension)
SYNC Synchronous
SYS System
.SYS System Configuration (file name extension) +
System Device Driver (file name extension)
SYSADMIN System Administrator
SYSGEN System Generator
SYSLOG System Log
SYSMOD System Modification
SYSOP System Operator
SYSREQ System Request
SZ Send ZModem [Unix]
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TAB Tape Automated Bonding
TAC Title, Author, Copyright
TACS Total Access Communication System
TAD Telephone Answering Device
TAG Technical Advisory Group
TAL Typed Assembly Language
TALOSS Three-Dimensional Advanced Localization
Observation Submarine Software
TAO Track At Once
TAP Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol
TAPCIS The Access Program for the CompuServe
Information Service
TAPI Telephony Applications Programming Interface
.tar Tape Archive (archived file name extension) [Unix]
.tar.Z Compressed Archived files (file name extension)

TAS Telephone Access Server + Total Access System
TASM Turbo Assembler [Borland]
TAXI Transparent Asynchronous Transceiver/Receiver

TB Terabyte (1,024 gigabytes)
(One Thousand Billion characters of information)
T/B Top and Bottom
TBBS The Bread Board System (BBS)
TBGA Tape Ball Grid Array
.TBK Toolbook (file name extension)
TBS Time-Based Sampling
TBU Tape Backup Unit
TC Test Control + Transmission Control
TCL Tool Command Language
TCM Trellis-Coded Modulation
TCO Total Cost of Ownership
TCP Tape-Carrier Package
TCPA Trusted Computing Platform Alliance [Intel]
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCT Terminal Control Table
TD Transmit Data
.TDA To Do Archive (file name extension) [Palm]
TDC Tabular Data Control
TDD Telecommunications Device for the Deaf +
Test Driven Development
TDtoDP Tablet Coordinates to Display Coordinates
TDE Terminal Display Editor
.TDF Trace Definition File (file name extension) [OS/2]

Typeface Definition File (file name extension)
TDI Transport Device Interface
TDM Technical Document Management +
Time Division Multiplexing
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TDMS Terminal Display Management System
TDP Tag Distribution Protocol [Cisco] +
Telelocator Data Protocol
TDSR Transmitter Data Service Request
TDR Time Domain Reflectometry
TE/2 Terminal Emulator/2 [Oberon]
TEB Thread Environment Block
TEC Tokyo Electronics Corporation
TED Technology, Entertainment and Design +
Tiny Editor + Transient Electromagnetic Device
TEI Terminal Endpoint Identifier
TELCO Telephone Company
TEML Turbo Editor Macro Language [Borland]
TEMP Temporary
TER Thermal Eclipse Reading [Sony]
TERMPWR Terminator Power
TFDD Text File Device Driver
TFEL Thin-Film Electroluminescent
.TFM Tagged Font Metric (file name extension)
TFT Thin-Film Transistor (screens)
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
.TGA Taga Bitmap (file name extension)
THD Total Harmonic Distortion
.THD Thread (file name extension)
THINNET Thin Ethernet
THOMAS The (U.S.) House (of Representatives) Open

Access System
THOR Tandy High-Performance Optical Recording
THR Transmit Holding Register
.THS Thesaurus (file name extension)
TI Texas Instruments, Inc.
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association +
The Internet Adapter [Internet]
TIB Tag Information Base
TID Target ID
TIES Time Independent Escape Sequence
.TIF Tagged Image File (filename extension)
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture
TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding
and Referencing
TIIAP Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure
Assistance Program [NII]
TIL Tech Info Library [Macintosh]
TIM Technical Information Memo [Compaq]
TIMEZONES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - GMT Offsets
Offsets Eastward from GMT

Offsets Westward from GMT

AST - Atlantic Standard Time -4:00
AT - Azores Time -2:00
AHD - Alaska-Hawaii Daylight :::
AHS - Alaska-Hawaii Standard -10:00
BLT - Baghdad Local Time +3:00
BST - British Summer Time :::
CAT - Central Alaska Time -10:00
CCT - China Coast Time +8:00
CDT - Central Daylight Time :::
CET - Central European Time +1:00
CLT - Cairo Local Time +2:00
CST - Central Standard Time -6:00
EAD - East Australian Daylight :::
EAS - East Australian Standard +10:00
EDT - Eastern Daylight Time :::
EET - Eastern European Time +1:00
EMT - Eastern Mediterranean +2:00
EST - Eastern Standard Time -5:00
GMT - Greenwich Mean Time +0:00
HST - Hawaii Standard Time -10:00
JST - Japanese Standard Time +9:00
MDT - Mountain Daylight Time :::
MET - Middle European Time +1:00
MST - Mountain Standard Time -7:00
MTS - Moscow Time Standard +3:00
MTD - Moscow Time Daylight :::
NT - Nome Time -11:00
NZT - New Zealand Time +12:00
PDT - Pacific Daylight Time :::
PST - Pacific Standard Time -8:00
PST - Pakistan Standard Time +5:00
WAS - West Australian Standard +7:00
WAT - West Africa Time -1:00
WED - Western Europe Daylight :::
WES - Western Europe Standard +0:00
YDT - Yukon Daylight Time :::
YST - Yukon Standard Time -9:00
IDLE- International Date Line East +12:00
IDLW- International Date Line West -12:00
TIMI Technology Independent Machine Interface [IBM]
TIMS Text Information Management Systems
TINA Telecommunication Information Networking

TIP Terminal Interface Processor +
Transaction Internet Protocol
TITOFET Tunneling-In, Tunneling-Out Field Effect

TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
TK/TK Track to Track
TLA Three-Letter Acronym
TLB Translation Lookaside Buffer
.TLB Table (file name extension)
TLD Top Level Domain
TLI Transport Layer Interface
TLS Transport Layer Security
TLU Table Lookup
.TLX Telex (file name extension)
TM Trademark
TMDS Transition Minimized Differential Signaling
.TML Template (file name extension)
TMP Temporary
TMS Traffic Management System [BA]
TN Twisted Nematic
TNC Terminal Node Controller
TNEF Transport Neutral Encapsulation Format
TNO The Netherlands Organization
TOC Table Of Contents
TOD Time Of Day
TOF Tiny Open Firmware
TOP Technical and Office Protocol
TOS Terms Of Service
TPC Transaction-Processing Performance Council
TPF Transactions Processing Facility [IBM]
TPI Tracks Per Inch
TPL Table Producing Language +
Transaction Processing Language
TPM Transactions Per Minute
TPORT Twisted Pair Port Transceiver [AT&T]
TP-PMD Twisted Pair-Physical Medium Dependent (cable)
TPS Transactions Per Second +
Transaction Processing System
TPW Turbo Pascal for Windows
TQFP Thin Quad Flat Pack
TQM Total Quality Management
TR Terminal Ready
T/R Transmit/Receive
TRACERT Trace Route [Microsoft]
TRADIC * Transistorized Airborne Digital Computer
(Name of first computer to be entirely
.TRM Terminal (file name extension)
TRN Threaded Read News [Internet] + Token Ring Network
TRON The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus
TS Top Secret
TSA Target Service Agent + Technical Support Alliance

Telephony Services Architecture
TSAPI Telephony Services Application Program
Interface [AT&T + Novell]
TSB Termination Status Block
TSD Type-Specific Driver
TSE The Semware Editor
TSID Transmitting Subscriber Identification [Microsoft]
TSN Transition Sequence Number
TSO Time Sharing Option
TSOP Thin Small-Outline Package
TSP Telephony Service Provider
TSR Terminate and Stay Resident
TSS Task State Segment + Time Sharing System
TS/SI Top Secret/Sensitive Information
.TST Test (file name extension)
TSTN Triple Supertwisted Nematic
TSV Tab Separated Values
TT Typewriter Text
TTA Transport-Triggered Architecture
TTCN Tree and Tabular Combined Notation
.TTF TrueType Font (file name extension)
TTL Transistor-Transistor Logic
TTP Thermal-Transfer Printing
TTS Text-To-Speech + Transaction Tracking System
TTY Teletype
TUCOWS The Ultimate Collection of Winsock Software
TUI Text-Based User Interface [WordPerfect]
TUMS Table Update and Management System [Stanford

.TUT Tutorial (file name extension)
TVF Table of contents Verbosely from File [UNIX]
TVFS Toronto Virtual File System [IBM]
TVI Television Interference
TVOL Television On-Line
TWAIN Technology Without Any Interesting Name
(connection between application and scanner

TWEAKUI Tweak User Interface
TWIP Twenty In Point (as in 20 twips/pixel) [Microsoft]
TWX Teletypewriter Exchange Service
TXD Transmit Data
.TXF Tax Exchange Format (file name extension)
TXT Text
TXT2STF Text To Structured File [Lotus Agenda]
TZ Time Zone [Unix]
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UA User Agent + User Area
UAE Unrecoverable Application Error
UAM User Authentication Method
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UAS User Application Software
UBE Unsolicited Bulk Email
UBR Unspecified Bit Rate
.UC2 Compressed File (file name extension)

UCB Universal Content Broker
UCBE Unsolicited Commercial Bulk Email
UCE Unsolicited Commercial Email
UCL Universal Communications Language
UCS Unicode Conversion Support + Universal Character

Set +
User Coordinate System
UCT Universal Coordinated Time
UDA Universal Data Access [Microsoft]
UDB Universal Data Base
UDC Universal Decimal Classification + User Defined

UDD User Data Document
UDDI Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
UD-DVD Ultra-Definition Digital Video Disk
UDE Universal Data Exchange
UDEC * Universal Digital Electronic Computer [Burroughs]
UDF Universal Disk Format + User Defined Functions
UDG User Defined Gateway
UDMA Ultra Direct Memory Access
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UDT Uniform Data Transfer + User-Defined Type
UEMS Unsolicited Electronic Mail Solicitation
UFS Universal\Unix File System
UG User Group
UHCI Universal Host Controller Interface
UHF Ultra-High Frequency
UHL Universal Hypertext Link
UI Unix International + User Interface
UIC User Identification Code
UID User Identifier
UIMS User Interface Management System
UL Underwriters Laboratories +
Unordered List + Upload
ULA Uncommitted Logic Array
ULB Ultra Wideband
ULN Universal Link Negotiation
ULS Universal Licensing System
ULSI Ultra Large Scale Integration
UMA Unified Memory Architecture
UMB Upper Memory Block [LIM/AST]
UML Unified Modeling Language
UMS User Mode Scheduler
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UNC Universal Naming Convention +
Uuencoded Netnews Collator [Unix]
UNCOL Universal Computed Oriented Language
UNEP Unbundled Network Platform
UNI User-Network Interface
UNICOM Universal Integrated Communication (System)
UNICOS Universal Compiler FORTRAN compatible
UNII Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer
UNIX (AT&T Bell Laboratories Operating System)
UNMA Unified Network Management Architecture
UNSPSC Universal Standard Products and Services

UP Uniprocessor
UPC Universal Product/Program Code + User Parameter

UPG Upgrade
UPL User Program Language
UPM Unix Programmer's Manual +
User Profile Management [IBM]
UPNP (UPnP) Universal Plug and Play
UPS United Parcel Service (company) +
Uninterruptible Power Supply/System
URC Uniform Resource Characteristics +
Uniform Resource Citation
UREP Unix RSCS Emulation Protocol (protocol)
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator
URN Uniform Resource Name/Number
US Unit Separator
USART Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous

USB Universal Serial Bus [Intel]
US-CERT United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team
USENET User's Network [Internet]
USERID User Identification
USOC Universal Service Ordering Code
USQ Unsqueezed (files)
USR US Robotics (corporation)
USRT Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter
USSA User Supported Software Association (United

UT User Terminal
UTC Coordinated Universal Time
UTF Unicode Transformation Format
UTI Universal Text Interchange/Interface
UTM Universal Transverse Mercator (grid)
UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (cable)
UU Uuencode/Uudecode
UUCP Unix-To-Unix Copy Protocol
UUD UUDecoding [Unix]
UUDECODE Unix-To-Unix Decoding
UUE UUEncoding [Unix]
UUENCODE Unix-To-Unix Encoding
UUI User-To-User Information [AT&T]
UUID Universal Unique Identifier
UV Ultraviolet
UWB Ultra-Wide Band
UWR Ultra Wideband Radio
UXGA Ultra Extended Graphics Array
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VA Virtual Address + Visual Age [IBM]
VAD Value Added Dealer
VADD Value Added Disk Driver
VAI Video As Input
VAL Value + Voice Application Language
.VAL Validity Checks (file name extension) [Paradox]
VAM Virtual Access Method
VAN Value Added Network
VAP Value Added Process
VAR Value Added Reseller + Value Added Retailer +

VAST Variable Array Storage Technology
VAX/VMS Virtual Address Extension/Virtual Memory System

VB Variable Block + Visual Basic [Microsoft]
VBA Visual Basic for Applications [Microsoft]
VBE/AI Vesa Bios Extension/Audio Interface
VBI Vertical Blanking Interval
VBNS Very High Speed Backbone Network Service [MCI +

VBR Variable Bit Rate
VBRUN Visual Basic Runtime
VBS Visual Basic Script
.VBX Visual Basic Extension (file name extension)
VCC Virtual Channel Connection
VCD Video Compact Disk + Virtual Communications Driver
VCI Virtual Circuit Identifier
VCL Visual Class/Component Library
VCM Virtual Channel Memory
VCN Virtual Cluster Number
VCOS Visual Caching Operating System [AT&T]
VCPI Virtual Control Program Interface
VCR Video Cassette Recorder
VDD Virtual Device Driver
VDDM Virtual Device Driver Manager
VDE Video Display Editor + Visual Development

VDI Virtual Device Interface
VDISK Virtual Disk
VDM Virtual DOS Machine [IBM]
VDMAD Virtual Direct Memory Access Device [Microsoft]
VDS Virtual DMA Services
VDT Video Dial Tone + Video Display Terminal
VDU Video Display Unit + Visual Display Unit
VEGA Video-7 Enhanced Graphics Adapter [Video-7, Inc.]
VEMM Virtual Expanded Memory Manager
VEMMI Versatile Multimedia Interface
VER Verify + Version
VERONICA Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-Wide Index to
Computer Archives [Internet]
VERR Verify Read Access
VERW Verify Write Access
VES Video Encoding Standard [Oracle] +
Virtual Execution System
VESA Video Electronics Standards Association
VF Virtual Floppy
VFAT Virtual File Allocation Table [Microsoft]
V.FC Version.First Class (communications standard)
VFD Vacuum Fluorescent Display
VFW Video For Windows [Microsoft]
VGA Video Graphics Array
VGC Video Graphics Controller
VHDL VHSIC Hardware Description Language
VHF Very-High Frequency
VHS Very High Speed + Video Home System +
Virtual Host Storage
VHSIC Very High Speed Integrated Circuit
VI Visual Interactive (editor) [UNIX]
VIA Virtual Interface Architecture [Intel]
VIE Virtual Information Environment
VIF Virtual Interface + Virtual Interrupt Flag
VIM Vendor Independent Mail +
Vendor Independent Messaging + Video Interface

VIO Video Input/Output + Virtual Input/Output
VINES Virtual Networking System [Banyan]
ViP Visual Programming [Lotus]
VIP Variable Information Processing +
Video Information Provider +
Virtual Interrupt Pending +
Visual Interactive Parser
VIPER Verifiable Integrated Processor for
Enhanced Reliability
VIS Video Information System [Tandy] +
Viewable Image Size +
Visual Instruction Set [Sun] +
Voice Information System
VJ HEADER Van Jacobsen Header (compression) [Unix]
VLA Variable-Length Array
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
VL-BUS Vesa Local-Bus [VESA]
VLD Variable-Length Decoder
VLF Very Low Frequency
VLINK Visited Link [HTML]
VLIW Very Large Instruction Word
VLM Virtual Loadable Module
VLSI Very Large Scale Integration
VLSIPS Very Large Scale Immobilized Polymer Synthesis
VLT Variable List Table
VM Virtual Machine + Virtual Memory
VMA Virtual Memory Address
VMB Virtual Machine Boot
VMD Video Motion Detection
VME Versa Module Eurocard +
Virtual Memory Environment
VML Vector Markup Language [Microsoft]
VMM Virtual Machine/Memory Manager
VMOS Vertical MOS
VMP Virtual Modem Protocol
VMS Virtual Machine Storage + Virtual Memory System +
Voice Message System
VMT Virtual Memory Technique
VNA Virtual Network Architecture
VNC Virtual Network Computing
VNOS Visual Network Operating System
VOC Creative Voice (format) [Sound Blaster]
VOD Video On Demand
VOFDM Vector Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing [Cisco]
VOIP Voice Over Internet Protocol
VOL Volume
VOM Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter
VOR Visions Of Reality
VOS Verbal/Virtual/Voice Operating System
VP Virtual Path
VPD Virtual Printer Device + Vital Product Data [IBM]
VPDN Virtual Private Data Network
VPDS Virtual Private Data Service [MCI]
VPE Video Port Extensions [Microsoft] +
Visual Programming Environment
VPL Virtual Programming Language
VPM Video Port Manager
VPN Virtual Page Number + Virtual Private Network
VPS Voice Processing System
VPSC Vault, Process, Structure, Configuration
VPT Virtual Print Technology [Dataproducts]
VR Virtual Reality + Voltage Regulated/Regulator
VRAM Video Random Access Memory
VRD Virtual Retinal Display
VRE Voltage Regulated Extended
VRM Vendor Relationship Management + Voltage Regulator

VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language
(originally named Virtual Reality Markup Language)
VROOMM Virtual Real-time Object Oriented
Memory Manager [Borland]
VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
.VRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)
VRT Voltage Regulation Technology [Intel]
VRU Voice Response Unit
VS Virtual Storage
VSAM Video Surveillance and Monitoring +
Virtual Storage Access Method
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
VSE Virtual Storage Extended
VSF Vertical Scanning Frequency
VSI Virtual Socket/Switch Interface
VSIO Virtual Serial Input Output
VSM Virtual Shared Memory + Virtual Storage Management

Visual System Management [IBM]
VSN Volume Serial Number
VSOS Virtual Storage Operating System
VST Virtual Studio Technology
VSTO Visual Studio Tools [Microsoft]
VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
VSYNC Vertical Sync
VT Vertical Tab
VTAM Virtual Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]
VTNS Virtual Telecommunications Network Service
VTS Volume Tracking Driver
VUI Video User Interface
VUP VAX Unit of Performance
VWB Visual WorkBench [Microsoft]
VWM Virtual Window Manager
VXA Variable-Speed Architecture [Ecrix]
VxD Virtual Extended Driver [Microsoft]
.VXD Virtual Device (file name extension) [Microsoft]
VXML Voice Extensible Markup Language
V&V Verification and Validation
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W/ With
W3 (see WWW)
W3A World Wide Web Applets
W3C World Wide Web Consortium
W4 What-Works-With-What
WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System
WABI Windows Application Binary Interface [SunSoft]
WAE Wireless Application Environment
WAI Web Accessibility Initiative +
Web Application Interface [Netscape]
WAIS Wide Area Information Server
WAITI Wait-For-Interrupt
WAITS Wide Area Information Transfer System
WAN Wide Area Network
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
WAR Web Archive
WARP Web Service Aggregtion, Rely and Propogation
WATS Wide Area Telecommunications Service
.WAV Waveform Audio (file name extension)
WBEM Web-Based Enterprise Management
WC Word Count
W-CDMA Wideband CDMA
WCS World Coordinate System
WD-40 Water Displacement-40th Attempt
WDDX Web Distributed Data Exchange
WDL Windows Driver Library [Microsoft]
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing +
Windows Driver Model [Microsoft]
WDRAM Windows Dynamic Random Access Memory
WEA Web Enabled Application
.WEB Entities Emphasizing the WWW (Domain Name)

WEBDAV Web Based Distributed Authoring and Versioning
WEBNFS Web Network File System [Sun]
WEFT Web Embedding Fonts Tool [Microsoft]
WELL Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (BBS)
WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy +
Wireless Encription Protocol
WFM Wired For Management [Intel]
WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing [Cisco]
WFW Windows For Workgroups [Microsoft]
WGS Work Group System
WHAM Waveform Hold and Modify [Microsoft]
WHC Workstation Host Connection
WIB World wIde weB (suggested oral replacement of
nine-syllable 'WWW' using one-syllable 'WIB'
WIFI (Wi-Fi) Wireless Fidelity
WIM Wireless Instant Messaging
WIMP Windows, Icons, Menus and Pulldowns
WIN 9.X Windows95/Windows98
WIN...CE Windows Compact Edition [Microsoft]
WINDBG Windows Debugger [Microsoft]
WINE Windows Emulator
WINForum Wireless Information Networks Forum
WIN...MCE Windows Media Center Edition [Microsoft]
WIN...ME Windows Millennium Edition [Microsoft]
WINS Windows Internet Naming Service [Microsoft]
WIN...SE Windows Second Edition [Microsoft]
WINSOCK Windows Open Systems Architecture [Microsoft] +
Windows Sockets
WINWORD Word For Windows [Microsoft]
WIN...XP Windows The "Experience" [Microsoft]
WISE WordPerfect Information System Environment
WISP Wireless Internet Service Provider
WIT Web Interactive Talk [Internet]
.WKB Workbook (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
.WKE Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3]

.WKQ Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]
.WKS Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3]

.WKZ Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension)

.WK1 Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3]

WL Word Line
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
.WLG Dr. Watson Log (file name extension)
WLL Wireless Local Loop
.WMA Windows Media Audio (file name extension)

WMC Workflow Management Coalition
WME Wireless Multimedia Enhancements
.WMF Windows Metafile Format (file name extension)

WMFSDK Windows Media Format Software Development Kit

WMI Windows Management Instrumentation [Microsoft]
WML Wireless Markup Language
WMP Windows Media Player [Microsoft]
WMRM Write Many, Read Many
WMT Windows Media Technologies [Microsoft]
.WMV Windows Video File (file name extension) [Microsoft]
WNIC Wide-Area Network Interface Co-Processor
WNIM Wide-Area Network Interface Module
W/O Without
WORM Write Once, Read Many
WOS Workstation Operating System
WOSA Windows Open Services/Systems Architecture

WOW Window On Windows [Microsoft]
WP WordPerfect + Word Processing + Write Protected
WPA Wi-Fi/Wireless Protected Access
.WPD Windows Printer Description (file name extension)
.WPG WordPerfect Graphics (file name extension)
WPHD Write-Protect Hard Disk
.WPK Keyboard (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
WPM Words Per Minute
.WPM Macro (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
WPOS Workplace Operating System
WPS Windows Printing System [Microsoft] +
Workplace Shell [OS2]
WPVM Windows Parallel Virtual Machine
.WQ1 Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]
.WQ! Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension)

WRAM Windows Random Access Memory
WRE Weighted Random Early Detection [Cisco]
.WRI Write (file name extension)
WRK Windows Resource Kit [Microsoft]
WS WordStar + Workstation
WSAPI Web Site Application Program Interface [O'Reilly]
WSDL Web Services Definition/Description Language

WSH Windows Scripting Host [Microsoft]
WSP Wireless Session Protocol
WSUI Web Services User Interface
WT Write Through
WTA Wireless Telephony Application
WTLS Wireless Transport Layer Security
WTM Wired For Management
WWIS World Wide Information System [Internet]
WWW World-Wide Web [Internet]
WYSBYGI What You See Before You Get It
WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get
| TOP | UP to W | DN to Y | BOTTOM |

XA Extended Architecture + Extended Attribute
XACML Extensible Access Control Markup Language
XAPIA X.400 Application Program Interface Association
X2B Hexadecimal to Binary [REXX]
.XBM X-Windows Bitmaps (file name extension) (black and

XBRL Extensible Business Reporting Language
X2C Hexadecimal to Character [REXX]
XCHG Exchange
XCMD External Command
XCOPY Extended Copy
X2D Hexadecimal to Decimal [REXX]
XDF Extended Density Format [IBM]
XDR Extended/External Data Representation
XFCN External Function
XFDL Extensible forms Description Language
XGA Extended Graphics Array [IBM]
XHTML Extensible HyperText Markup Language
XID Exchange Identifier
XIOS Extended Input/Output System
.XLA Add-In (file name extension) [Microsoft-Excel]
XLAT Translate
XLF Exceptional Fortran [IBM]
XLIFF XML Localization Interchange File Format [IBM]
.XLK Backup (file name extension) [Microsoft-Excel]
XLL Extensible Link Language
XLM Excel Macro Language [Microsoft]
.XLT Template (file name extension) [Microsoft-Excel]
XMIT Transmit
XML Extensible Markup Language
XMM Extended Memory Manager [LIM/AST]
XMS Extended Memory Specification [LIM/AST]
XNS Xerox Network System (protocol) [Xerox]
XOFF Transmitter Off
XON Transmitter On
XOR Exclusive OR (Also EOR)
XP Extreme Performance [Compaq]
XPCOM Cross Platform Component Object Model [Mozilla]
XPE XP Embedded (see WIN...XP) [Microsoft]
XPRM Xerox Print Resources Manager [Xerox]
.XPM X-Windows Pixelmaps (file name extension) (color)
XRI Extensible Resource Identifier
XRNS Extensible Resource Name System
XRT Extensions for Real-Time
XSL Extensible Style Language
XSLT Extensible Stylesheet Transformation
XSMD Extended Storage Module Drive (interface)
XSSI Extended Server Side Includes
XTAL Crystal
XTCLK External Transmit Clock
XUL Extensible User-Interface Language [Netscape]
| TOP | UP to X | DN to Z | BOTTOM |

YAM Yet Another Modem [Omen Technology]
YAHOO Yet Another Hierarchically Officious Oracle

Y2K Year 2000
(Y/N)? (Asks for a YES or NO decision)
YTD Year To Date

.z Packed file (file name extension - using

program)..lower case z..[Unix]
.Z Compressed file (file name extension - using
Compress/Uncompress program)..upper case Z..[Unix]
ZAK Zero Administration Kit [Microsoft]
ZAW Zero Administration for Windows [Microsoft]
ZBR Zone-Bit Recording [IBM]
Z-CAV Zoned Constant Angular Velocity
ZDL Zero Delay Lockout
ZDS Zenith Data Systems
ZIF Zero-Insertion Force (socket)
ZIP Zigzag In-Line Package +
Zone Improvement Plan (ZIPcode)
.ZIP Compressed File (file name extension) [PKWare]
.ZOO Compressed File (file name extension) [Dhesi]
ZPV Zoomed Port Video [Toshiba]
ZSL Zero Slot LAN
ZVP Zoomed Video Port
@ At + Commercial At
(\) Backslash
(/) Slash
(~) Tilde
(_) Underscore
{ } Braces
[ ] Square Brackets
... Ellipsis
* Wildcard character (asterisk)
*.* Star-Dot-Star (represents
Any file name.Any file name extension)
.$$$ Temporary File (file name extension)
1GL First Generation Language (machine language)
24/7 Twenty-Four Hours a Day, Seven Days a Week
286 80286 (microprocessor)
2GL Second Generation Language (assembly language)
386 80386 (microprocessor)
3COM 3 Com Corporation (The 3 Coms are
Computer, Communications and Compatibility)
3GL Third Generation Language (programming language)
486 80486 (microprocessor)
4GL Fourth Generation Language (descriptive language)
6DOF Six Degrees Of Freedom

Version 05C

Copyright (C) 1989-2005 Irving & Richard Kind All Rights

c/o K & D, One Church Lane, Baltimore, MD 21208

Jan 2005 version = 05A Jan 2006 version = 06A
May 2005 version = 05B May 2006 version = 06B
Sep 2005 version = 05C Sep 2006 version = 06C



To obtain the latest version of BABEL use any of these


For HTML Format ONLY

For ALL Formats: HTML, TEXT and PALM

NOTE for all methods:
After Jan 1, 2005 BABEL TXT, HTML, ZIP & PALM will contain

Version 05A
After May 1, 2005 BABEL TXT, HTML, ZIP & PALM will contain

Version 05B
After Sep 1, 2005 BABEL TXT, HTML, ZIP & PALM will contain

Version 05C

The following examples are included to only serve as a

brief introduction to what may be found when reading email

and news
groups and when using IRC on the Internet.

- - - - - - -

In email and news, "smiley faces" (emoticons), rather

words, are used to express the writer's feelings. Turn your

head to
the side to read them.

:-) Smile :-D Laughing

:-] Smirk :-( Frown

;-) Wink :-X Close-mouthed

8-) Wide-eyed :-O Open-mouthed


Just kidding Grin

- - - - - - -

In email and during on-line conversations, a variety of

groups are used to abbreviate the writer's comments, such


BRB Be right back IMHO In my humble opinion

BTW By the way ROFL Rolling on the floor

FOAF Friend of a friend TIA Thanks in advance



At the present time there are over 200 recognized

Domain names. Two-letter abbreviations that represent the
country names are used in addresses seen on the Internet.

following names (145 confirmed) represent the country of

from where someone has downloaded BABEL (babel.html). A

list of Country Domain Names may be found at the Internet
Assigned Number Authority: www.iana.org

.ad Andorra
.ae United Arab Emirates
.ag Antigua and Barbuda
.ai Anguilla
.al Albania
.am Armenia
.ar Argentina
.at Austria
.au Australia
.aw Aruba
.ba Bosnia-Herzegovina
.be Belgium
.bg Bulgaria
.bh Bahrain
.bm Bermuda
.bn Brunei Darussalam
.bo Bolivia
.br Brazil
.bs Bahamas
.bw Botswana
.by Belarus
.bz Belize
.ca Canada
.ccCocos (Keeling) Islands
.ch Switzerland
.ci Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
.cl Chile
.cn China
.co Colombia
.cr Costa Rica
.cu Cuba
.cy Cyprus
.cz Czech Republic
.de Germany
.dk Denmark
.dm Dominica
.do Dominican Republic
.ec Ecuador
.ee Estonia
.eg Egypt
.es Spain
.et Ethiopia
.fi Finland
.fj Fiji
.fm Micronesia
.fo Faroe Islands
.fr France
.gb Great Britain
.ge Georgia
.gi Gibraltar
.gl Greenland
.gpGuadeloupe (French)
.gr Greece
.gt Guatemala
.gu Guam
.gy Guyana
.hk Hong Kong
.hn Honduras
.hr Croatia
.hu Hungary
.id Indonesia
.ie Ireland
.il Israel
.in India
.ir Iran
.is Iceland
.it Italy
.jm Jamaica
.jo Jordan
.jp Japan
.ke Kenya
.kg Kyrgyzstan
.kr Korea (South)
.kw Kuwait
.kz Kazakhstan
.lb Lebanon
.lc Saint Lucia
.li Liechtenstein
.lk Sri Lanka
.lt Lithuania
.lu Luxembourg
.lv Latvia
.ma Morocco
.mc Monaco
.md Moldova
.mk Macedonia
.mn Mongolia
.mo Macau
.mt Malta
.mu Mauritius
.mv Maldives
.mx Mexico
.my Malaysia
.na Namibia
.nc New Caledonia (French)
.nfNorfolk Island
.ng Nigeria
.ni Nicaragua
.nl Netherlands
.no Norway
.np Nepal
.nu Niue
.nz New Zealand
.om Oman
.pa Panama
.pe Peru
.pf Polynesia (French)
.pg Papua New Guinea
.ph Philipines
.pk Pakistan
.pl Poland
.pt Portugal
.py Paraguay
.qa Qatar
.ro Romania
.ru Russian Federation
.sa Saudi Arabia
.se Sweden
.sg Singapore
.si Slovenia
.sk Slovak Republic
.su USSR (former)
.sv El Salvador
.th Thailand
.tn Tunisia
.to Tonga
.tr Turkey
.tt Trinidad and Tobago
.tw Taiwan
.tz Tanzania
.ug Uganda
.uk United Kingdom
.us United States
.uy Uruguay
.uz Uzbekistan
.va Vatican City State
.ve Venezuela
.vi Virgin Islands (USA)
.vn Vietnam
.ye Yemen
.yu Yugoslavia
.za South Africa
.zm Zambia
.zw Zimbabwe




SUBMITTING A NEW ENTRY....Each submitted entry is

verified before inclusion into BABEL. Please let me know

you have seen your submission used or described; i.e., name

publication, page number, who uses it, where it is used,

Furnish COMPLETE details in order that your entry may be
verified from this end via the Internet

Submit your entry via e-mail to:

Include the word BABEL or GLOSSARY on your Subject



SAVING AND PRINTING....To have instant access to

suggest that you download the complete file rather than to

on line.

For the HTML version, download babel.html or

and save it on a floppy disk or on your hard drive. Use

your browser
to locate any entry instantly.

For Printing, use the TEXT version. Download

unzip it, and set your printer for sixty (60) lines per

page, with
a six (6) character left hand margin, using 8-1/2" x 11"

Punch holes for a loose leaf binder and keep it on your

desk. Again,
instant access.

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